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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
K. Régaiszné Vajda
,
A.A. Halbritter
,
P. Szűcs
,
J. Szigeti
, and
B. Ásványi

Sous-vide (French for ʽunder vacuum’) is a professional cooking method, by which, under oxygen-free conditions and precise temperature control, not only cooking but preservation is achieved. During the process the food matrix is vacuum-packed and undergoes a mild heat treatment, thus achieving an enhanced nutrition value and a better organoleptic character. Due to the mild heat treatment (55 to 90 °C), the high water activity, and the slight acidity of raw materials, the microbial quality assurance is a great challenge even for professionals. The heat treatment does not assure the inactivation of pathogen spores. In our experiments we used Clostridium perfringens representing the spore-forming pathogens, and Salmonella Enteritidis as a the food-borne infection bacterium. Effects of various temperatures were measured in normal and sous-vide type vacuum packaging. Higher thermal death rate in vacuum packaging was demonstrated for Salmonella Enteritidis and Clostridium perfringens.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Ildikó Karsai
,
B. Kőszegi
,
G. Kovács
,
P. Szűcs
,
Klára Mészáros
,
Z. Bedő
, and
O. Veisz

In order to analyse the effects of temperature (9–22 °C) and light intensity (170–576 μmol m −2 s −1 ) on plant development two barley varieties with contrasting seasonal growth habits were included in a series of experiments consisting of controlled environment tests. The effect of constant (18 °C) and daily fluctuating (18/16 °C) temperature with a long photoperiod was also examined in a set of barley varieties including winter, facultative and spring barleys. Dicktoo with facultative growth habit was more sensitive to unfavourable conditions than Kompolti korai with winter growth habit; the flowering of Dicktoo was significantly delayed by sub-and supra-optimal temperatures and low light intensity accompanied by higher or fluctuating temperatures. The optimal temperature at flowering was also significantly lower for Dicktoo than for Kompolti korai (16.0 °C vs. 21.0 °C, respectively). Plant development was the fastest when there was no fluctuating environmental factor in the growing conditions and was significantly delayed with application of photo cycle. The addition of thermo cycle to photo cycle had an even stronger delaying effect. Facultative barleys were the most sensitive, followed by winter barleys, while spring barleys the least sensitive to the introduction of thermo cycle.

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Despite recent evidence of the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption in arteriosclerosis prevention, the neurotoxic effects of alcohol abuse are well known. Our hypothesis was that uncontrolled alcohol consumption may cause cerebrovascular damage detectable by rheoencepholography (REG), a noninvasive bio-impedance technique for estimating cerebral blood flow. Test subjects were 48 alcoholic patients in Hungary; the control group consisted of 12 drug-addicted and depressed patients in Hungary and 13 healthy male subjects in the United States. Additional subgroups were formed according to smoking habits and average daily alcohol dose. REG was measured by a computer-based system, “Cerberus”; REG anacrotic time above 180 ms was considered pathological. ANOVA showed that daily alcohol consumption and smoking were significantly higher in alcoholics than in drug-addicted and depressed patients. Twelve alcoholics showed a pathological REG anacrotic time. Longer REG anacrotic time was correlated with higher daily alcohol consumption. In the alcoholic group, the steeper regression line of REG slope reflected the pathological impact of alcohol abuse. The healthy control sample showed a nearly identical slope for both REG and age. The correlation of increased REG anacrotic time and daily alcohol consumption supports the hypothesis that REG detects accelerated cerebrovascular aging (arteriosclerosis) in alcoholic subjects.

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A barley mapping population consisting of 96 doubled haploid lines of anther culture origin was developed from the varieties Dicktoo and Kompolti Korai, which represent diverse types with respect to geographical origin and ecological adaptation. Several molecular marker techniques were used in mapping: among the markers with known chromosome location, RFLP, STS and SSR markers were applied to identify linkage groups and for comparative mapping, while RAPD and AFLP markers, which have random binding but provide useful information on polymorphism, were employed to fill in the linkage groups with markers. A total of 496 markers were tested in the DH population, 246 of which were included in the linkage map after eliminating markers that were completely linked with each other. The ratio of markers with known chromosome location to random markers in the 1107 cM map was one to three, and the mean recombination distance between the markers was 4.5 cM. Application of various marker methods and the effect of the population structure on the development of marker linkage maps are discussed.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Musaab A. A. Mohammed
,
Balázs Kovács
,
Norbert P. Szabó
, and
Péter Szűcs

Abstract

The multi-aquifer system of the Nubian aquifer in central Sudan hydrogeological system was simulated using a three-dimensional steady-state model. The goal of the study is to detect the effect of pumping on the groundwater flow and thus, the aquifer productivity. The conceptual model of the study area was built based on the available geological and hydrogeological data guided by geophysical survey. Processing MODFLOW numerical code was used to calculate the hydraulic head and water balance under the existing boundary conditions. The model accurately simulated the hydraulic head with a determination coefficient of 0.88. The calibrated model indicated that the change in storage is 0.56 m3/day indicating the study area constitutes highly productive zone and is recommended for groundwater developments.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
P. Ormai
,
A. Fritz
,
J. Solymosi
,
I. Gresits
,
E. Hertelendi
,
Z. Szúcs
,
N. Vajda
,
Zs. Molnár
, and
P. Zagyvai

Abstract  

In the execution of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, it is important to evaluate accurately the kind and quantity of each radionuclide in the wastes. For such an evaluation, correlation of non-gamma-emitting nuclides based on gamma-emitting nuclides is recommended and regarded as a practical method. This method necessitates a completion of a highly accurate and reliable nondestructive assay system of gamma-emitting nuclides for practical use. In 1992, in support of the new waste disposal program in Hungary, Paks NPP initiated a waste characterization program to determine the radiological properties of its radwastes. A segmented gamma scanning system has been set up to measure the gamma-emitting nuclides in 200 litre low level drums following in-drum compaction. In the framework of the program a radiochemical analysis sub-program was started to determine the long-lived non-gamma emitting radionuclides, mainly those listed in the US regulatory document (10CFR61). The radionuclides of interest have been3H,14C,90Sr,55Fe,59Ni,99Tc,129I and TRUs. Sample preparation techniques and measurement methods have been selected and used. Newly developed or adopted methods have been tested on real liquid radwaste streams such as concentrates, ion-exchange resin and sludge. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. In the next stage of the characterisation program attempt will be made for providing correlation factors between the gamma and non-gamma-emitting radionuclides in different waste streams. Short description of the methods and results on waste inventory are given by highlighting the problem areas.

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