Authors:R. Choudhury, R. Acharya, A. Nair, A. Reddy, and A. Garg
Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially
marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu,
Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further,
Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material
(RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1–2 μg/g), Rb (10–40 μg/g), Cs (80–300 ng/g), Se (∼100
ng/g) and Zn (25–60 μg/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed
for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r = 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2 ± 1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 μg/g
whereas Cd and Pb were in ∼5 μg/g and <10 μg/g, respectively.
Authors:Amol Shinde, R. Acharya, R. Verma, and A. Reddy
Nuclear and commercial grade graphite samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using high
flux reactor neutrons. Eleven elements (Na, K, As, Sc, Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, La, Ce, and Sm) were determined in eight samples of
graphite (two nuclear grade and six commercial grade) by irradiating at a neutron flux of 3 × 1013 cm−2 s−1 in CIRUS reactor and assaying the activity by high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry using 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector
coupled to an MCA. Concentrations of elements were determined by relative method of INAA. Results of both types of graphites
as well as detection limits achieved by INAA method are discussed in the paper.
Authors:A. Garg, R. Paul Choudhury, R. Acharya, and A. Reddy
Tobacco smoking/chewing has been a cause of concern because of it being related with oral cancer. It causes stimulation and
ill physiological effects. Ten different brands of spit tobacco, eight gutkaas and five paan masalas have been analyzed for
seven minor (Al, Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 17 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, and
Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Also Ni and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Concentration of Cd was below detection limit (<10 mg kg−1) in the tobacco samples. Mg, generally added as MgCO3 to prevent caking, is present as minor constituent in spit tobacco and gutkaas but is below detection limit (<1 g kg−1) in paan masalas. Most elemental concentrations vary in a wide range depending on the nature of chewing tobacco. Spit tobacco
has been found to be more enriched in essential elements (Ca, K, Na, P, Mn, and Rb), whereas gutkaas contain higher concentrations
of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Paan masalas contain lower contents of other elements but higher content of Hg. Gutkaas also contain
higher amounts of As and Pb. Further glutamic acid has been separated from tobacco leaves and characterized as it might bind
with some elements.
Authors:K. Swain, Nicy Ajith, R. Acharya, R. Verma, and A. Reddy
Large sample neutron activation analysis of dross from India Government Mint, Mumbai was carried out for quantification of
gold (Au) and silver (Ag) using graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor critical facility at Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre, Mumbai. The k0-based internal monostandard NAA was used to calculate concentration ratios of Au and Ag with respect to sodium (Na), which
was used as an internal monostandard. The concentration ratio values of Au to Na of varying mass of dross showed that mass
≥2 g was the representative sample size for analysis. Concentrations of gold and silver were found to be in the range of 200–400
and 1200–1700 mg kg−1, respectively in three different samples.
Authors:A. Nair, A. Reddy, R. Acharya, P. Burte, and S. Manohar
A chemical neutron activation analysis method to determine trace amounts of palladium present in the uranium ores has been
developed. Palladium was concentrated on an anionic exchanger to purify from large amounts of uranium, iron and copper that
were present in the ore. The resin in which Pd was adsorbed was neutron irradiated and the activation product109Pd was assayed through its daughter109mAg by low energy photon spectrometry to estimate palladium. Both the 88 keV gamma-line and the 22 keV X-ray line (arising
out of the internal transition of109mAg) were used to arrive at the concentration values by a standard comparison technique. A thin window Si(Li) detector and
an HPGe detector were used for the radioactive assay. Detection limits and the advantage of using the X-ray line of Ag over
that of the gamma-line were discussed. An absolute detection limit of 0.12·10−9 g could be arrived at by the use of the 22.10 keV X-ray line in an interference-free condition.
Authors:K. Dasari, R. Acharya, N. Das, and A. Reddy
The k0 based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis was used to analyze 41 ancient pottery samples from three major locations
of Andhra Pradesh state, India, belonging to two different age groups namely Megalithic and Buddhist periods. Samples were
irradiated with neutron flux obtained from CIRUS reactor and radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency
HPGe detector coupled to 8 k MCA. Concentration ratios of 21 elements were calculated with respect to internal monostandard
Sc. Absolute concentrations for six (three each from both Megalithic and Buddhist periods) representative samples along with
a modern pottery were obtained for comparison. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Sc were used for grouping of
these archaeological samples. Preliminary grouping of these artifacts was done using La/Ce values, and the grouping was confirmed
by statistical cluster analysis using eleven selected trace elements. The IAEA RM SL-3 sample was analysed for validation
of the method, where in both concentration ratios and absolute concentrations were calculated.
Authors:Arijit Sengupta, V. Adya, R. Acharya, P. Mohapatra, and V. Manchanda
Americium is an important actinide element having versatile applications based on its alpha and gamma emissions. Multi-element
determination of radioactive samples using ICP-AES technique may be affected by the presence of americium due to its rich
emission spectra. With a view to characterize plutonium based fuels containing americium for trace metals by ICP-AES technique
accurately, a high purity 241Am (using a separation procedure developed in our laboratory) was prepared. To ascertain its chemical purity it is essential
to determine its impurity contents accurately. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), being a sensitive multi-elemental
technique, was employed to determine the concentrations of impurities in purified 241Am. Detection limits for the common elements and rare earth elements have also been determined. Comparison is made with the
analytical data obtained by the ICP-AES method.
Authors:R. Acharya, A. Nair, K. Sudarshan, A. Goswami, and A. Reddy
A summary of k0-based R&D work on neutron activation analysis (NAA), internal mono standard NAA (IM-NAA) and prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA)
is presented. The k0-based NAA was standardized by characterizing irradiation sites of research reactors, validated using reference materials
and applied to samples of different origin. Recently IM-NAA method was developed, validated for small and large size samples
and applied for the analysis of large size as well as non-standard geometry samples. Studies on PGNAA included characterization
of neutron beam, determinations of detection efficiency and prompt k0-factors, and analytical applications.
Authors:T. Prasad, P. Kalsi, R. Acharya, V. Manchanda, and P. Tewari
Nuclear analytical techniques namely fission track technique using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been standardized and applied for quantification of low uranium concentrations in
liquid samples such as feed, elute and brine and solid sorbent samples respectively. The quantification of uranium is required
for its recovery study from seawater, which is one of the potential sources of uranium. The uranium concentration of a liquid
sample obtained by SSNTD method was compared with the other well established conventional techniques like ICP-MS, ICP-AES,
adsorptive stripping voltametry and alpha spectrometry. INAA was applied for uranium concentration determination in the radiation
grafted polyamidoxime sorbent samples.