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Summary Cold pressed linseed oil and paints prepared using the inorganic pigments; lead white and red lead, were characterized using non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in an air atmosphere to determine the effect of the pigment on the oxidative polymerisation of the drying oil medium. For each paint sample, the onset temperature for oxidation was reduced from 166°C to the range 50 to 60°C when a heating rate of 5 K min-1 was used. In order to determine the rate of drying, the non-isothermal experiments were carried out using a range of heating rates. A change in the mechanism oxidative polymerization was observed as the heating rate was increased.

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Investigation of polymers by a novel analytical approach for evolved gas analysis in thermogravimetry

Gas chromatography comprehensively coupled to single photon ionization mass spectrometry

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Mohammad R. Saraji-Bozorgzad, Thorsten Streibel, Markus Eschner, Thomas M. Groeger, Robert Geissler, Erwin Kaisersberger, Thomas Denner, and Ralf Zimmermann

Abstract

A newly developed measurement technique for evolved gas analysis in thermogravimetry, viz. a thermo balance coupled to comprehensive gas chromatography/single photon ionization mass spectrometry (TG–GC × SPIMS), has been applied to investigate the thermal degradation of two polymers (polycarbonate (PC) blended with ABS and PVC). This detection method provides a two-dimensional analysis of the evolved gaseous products. TG relevant data is obtained as well as an improved resolution power to separate isobaric molecular structures without losing any fraction of the samples. In addition, this solution is not associated with any extension of the measurement time. The assignment of the substance pattern to distinct species is improved compared to solely using MS without a preceding separation step. Furthermore, hitherto undetected compounds when compared to applying TG–SPIMS without GC such as benzonitrile and its methylated derivatives have been found in the evolved gases from the thermal degradation of PC/ABS blend. Finally, a first estimation of the limit of detection has been carried out, yielding 400 ppt for styrene and 500 ppt for toluene from the thermal decomposition of PC/ABS blend.

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Summary Samples of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) were chemically reduced using 2-propanol under reflux (82°C) for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 24 h intervals. XRD analysis showed that the ?-MnO2 structure was preserved although the lattice dimensions were observed to increase with increasing degree of reduction to accommodate the intercalation of protons. The exception was the 24 h reduced sample which contained two phases; ? -MnO2 and ? -MnOOH. Three regions of decomposition in the range of 50 to 1000°C were observed using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and were accounted for as water removal below 390°C, reduction of MnO2 to Mn2O3 between 400 and 600°C, and Mn2O3 to Mn3O4 between 600 and 1000°C. Again the exception proved to be the 24 h reduced sample which was observed to decompose predominantly in one step between 400 and 600°C directly to Mn3O4.

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Abstract

A commercial thermogravimetry—supersonic jet-skimmer quadrupole mass spectrometer system (TG-Skimmer-QMS, Netzsch GmbH, Germany) was successfully converted for soft single photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometric (SPI-TOFMS) detection of organic compounds. VUV light for SPI was generated by an electron beam pumped argon excimer light source (EBEL; E photon = 9.8 eV). Furthermore, the versatility of the system was conserved, as high temperature TG and DSC measurements as well as electron ionisation mass spectrometry for the detection of inorganic compounds are still possible. The new system was tested with two polymers and a hydrocarbon mixture (diesel). It was demonstrated that aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds can be detected without fragmentation. Thus the system allows the recording of a readily interpretable organic signature of, e.g. thermal polymer decomposition. The thermal degradation of polystyrene shows a rich signature of the monomer, some oligomers and minor products of irregular cleavings of carbon chains. Polycarbonate exhibits a thermal decomposition fingerprint which is dominated by products of bisphenol A. The bisphenol A monomer, however, is also detectable.

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Abstract

The mechanism and stability of dimethylol urea (DMU) to polycondensation were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) for evolved gas analysis and a non-isothermal model-free induction period kinetic analysis using three temperature functions; the Arrhenius function and two non-Arrhenian functions. The polycondensation was observed to occur through a two-step process of condensation followed by elimination of formaldehyde during structural rearrangement as has been reported in the literature. The rate equations for each temperature function were evaluated and extrapolated to room (23 °C) and refrigerator (4 °C) temperature to estimate the length of the induction period for the onset of polycondensation for storage life prediction. Based on experience, estimates of the length of the induction periods and, hence, storage life, were most realistically predicted by the non-Arrhenian temperature functions.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: D. Robertson, A. Schilk, K. Abel, E. Lepel, C. Thomas, S. Pratt, E. Cooper, P. Hartwig, and R. Killey

Abstract  

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from lowlevel waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particulate, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species which appear to be predominately organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g.,60Co and106Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments have shown that significant fractions of the radionuclides are being transported in these groundwaters in the form of macromolecules having molecular weights ranging from less than 3,000 to 100,000.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. Ray, R. Sriravindrarajah, J.-P. Guerbois, P. Thomas, S. Border, H. Ray, J. Haggman, and P. Joyce

Abstract  

The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) is a well established practice worldwide in the manufacture of Portland cement (PC)-based construction materials. While utilisation of industrial by-products has been successful, the potential of mining wastes is yet to receive adequate attention in the context of construction materials. In an expanded form perlite, which is a naturally occurring, hydrated volcanic siliceous glass, is an ideal material as a lightweight aggregate for use in a wide range of construction materials including concrete. The mining and processing of the grades of perlite required for the production of lightweight aggregate results in the creation of a fine grained waste which currently has no economic value. This paper reports preliminary data on the utilisation of waste perlite fines as a SCM in calcium silicate-based construction material and discusses the potential of this mining waste to reduce the environmental impact of the production of conventional cement-based construction materials.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Thomas Mclaughlin, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Thomas Simpatico, John Giordano, Scot Jones, Debmayla Barh, William B. Downs, Roger L. Waite, Margaret Madigan, Kristina Dushaj, Raquel Lohmann, Eric R. Braverman, David Han, and Kenneth Blum

Abstract

Background and aims

Many patients presenting multiple behaviors including drug and food abuse as well as other pathological repetitive unwanted activities such as gambling, self-mutilation and paraphilias may not be appropriately diagnosed. Here we present a case of a male presenting many of these seemingly diverse behaviors and finally diagnosed with reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) by his attending physician.

Methods

The use of the dopamine agonist, ropinirole after two weeks showed improvement in terms of sexual behavior but tolerance set in and was discontinued especially when an infraction occurred with the patient's insurance. In this article, we carefully explore the potential of ropinirole to downregulate dopamine receptors causing adenylate cyclase receptor supersensitivity and tolerance a feature of neurotransmitter cross-talk. Based on previous scientific evidence showing KB220Znutrigenomic amino-acid therapy (NAAT) to rapidly (post one-hour) activate dopaminergic pathways in both the pre-frontal cortex cingulate gyrus (relapse loci) and ventral tegmental area-caudate-accumbens-putamen (craving and emotion loci) the patient was prescribed NAAT.

Results and discussion

Within one week of utilization the repetitive paraphilia was eliminated. There were also a number of other positive effects such as enhanced focus that persisted even after the patient stopped using KB220Z suggesting neuroplasticity (e.g. altruistic thoughts). However, these observed profound benefits require more in-depth study, especially in a large cohort against a placebo. While this report focused on a rapid response rather than long-term benefits previously associated with NAAT, it is somewhat encouraging and longer term required follow-up and larger placebo controlled studies are warranted before any definitive conclusions could be gleaned from this case report.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: A. B. Thomas, U. B. Chavan, R. K. Nanda, L. P. Kothapalli, S. N. Jagdale, S. B. Dighe, and A. D. Deshpande

Summary

Simultaneous analysis of atenolol (Atn), hydrochlorothiazide (Hctz) and losartan potassium (Los) in solid dosage forms has been achieved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column with a 0.035 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate-acetonitrile gradient as mobile phase and UV detection at 225 nm. The retention times for Atn, Hctz, and Los were 2.91, 4.75, and 7.52 min, respectively, with mean recoveries of 99.67, 99.89, and 100.69%. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. Because of its simplicity and high precision and accuracy, the method can be used for analysis of atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan potassium in pharmaceutical preparations.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J. Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R. Braverman, and Rajendra D. Badgaiyan

Background

Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution.

Case presentation

C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. She had been stable on buprenorphine/naloxone combination and amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts for many years when unexpectedly she lost her job for oversleeping and not calling into work. KB200z (a pro-dopamine compound) was added to her regimen for complaints of low drive and motivation. After taking this nutraceutical for 4 weeks, she noticed a marked improvement in her mental status and many behaviors. She noted that her shopping and hoarding addictions had appreciably decreased. Furthermore, her lifelong history of terrifying lucid dreams was eliminated. Finally, she felt more in control; her locus of control shifted from external to more internal.

Discussion

The hypothesis is that C.J.’s reported, behavioral, and psychological benefits resulted from the pro-dopamine-regulating effect of KB220Z across the brain reward system.

Conclusions

This effect, we surmise, could be the result of a new dopamine balance, across C.J.’s brain reward system. Dopamine homeostasis is an effect of KB220Z seen in both animal and human placebo-controlled fMRI experiments.

Open access