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Abstract  

Drinking water samples were collected from four different districts, namely Bhatinda, Mansa, Faridkot and Firozpur, of Punjab for ascertaining the U(nat.) concentrations. All samples were preserved, processed and analyzed by laser fluorimetry (LF). To ensure accuracy of the data obtained by LF, few samples (10 nos) from each district were analyzed by alpha spectrometry as well as by fission track analysis (FTA) technique. For FTA technique few μl of water sample was transferred to polythene tube, lexan detector was immersed in it and the other end of the tube was also heat-sealed. Two samples and one uranium standard were irradiated in DHRUVA reactor. Irradiated detectors were chemically etched and tracks counted using an optical microscope. Uranium concentrations in samples ranged from 3.2 to 60.5 ppb and were comparable with those observed by LF.

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Abstract  

A brief study on dissolved radionuclides in aquatic environment, especially in ground water, constitutes the key aspect for assessment and control of natural exposure. In the present study the distribution of natural uranium and 226Ra concentration were measured in ground water samples collected within a 10 km radius around the Narwapahar uranium mine in the Singhbhum thrust belt of Jharkhand, India in 2007–2008. The natural uranium content in the ground water samples in this region was found to vary from 0.1 to 3.75 μg L−1 with an average of 0.87 ± 0.73 μg L−1 and 226Ra concentration was found to vary from 5.2 to 38.1 mBq L−1 with an average of 13.73 ± 7.34 mBq L−1. The mean annual ingestion dose due to intake of natural uranium and 226Ra through drinking water pathway to male and female adults population was estimated to be 6.55 and 4.78 μSv y−1, respectively, which constitutes merely a small fraction of the reference dose level of 100 μSv y−1 as recommended by WHO.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
S. Tripathi
,
R. Kannan
,
P. Dhami
,
P. Naik
,
S. Munshi
,
P. Dey
,
N. Salvi
, and
S. Chattopadhyay

Abstract  

The improvement and the refinement of non-viable Rhizopus arrhizus biomass were investigated via immobilization. Immobilization was carried out by using sodium alginate/CaCl2 solution and formaldehyde/HCl cross-linking with dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass and were used for the sorption of radionuclides from low level effluent wastes. The sodium alginate/CaCl2 immobilized biomass (ratio 1:2) showed about 86% sorption for 241Am activity but due to its soft nature and tendency to undergo distortion in shape, is unsuitable for practical applications. The biomass cross-linked with 15% formaldehyde/0.1 M HCl solution has a relatively high mechanical strength and rigidity. It was showing a sorption of >99% for 241Am activity and has the sorption capacity of ~65 mg/g for americium and uranium. Hence, it can be utilized for the removal of radionuclides from radioactive waste effluents.

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Abstract  

This study presents the high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometric measurement of natural radioactivity mainly due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples collected in Ferozepur and Faridkot district of Punjab, India. 226Ra activity varied from 28.6 to 51.1 Bq kg−1 with the mean of 39.7 Bq kg−1. The range and mean activity of 232Th were 42.9–73.2 and 58.2 Bq kg−1, respectively. 40K activity was in the range of 470.9–754.9 Bq kg−1 with the mean of 595.2 Bq kg−1. The air kerma rate (AKR) at 1 m height from the ground was also measured using gamma survey meter in all the sampling locations, which was ranging from 92.1 to 122.8 nGy h−1 with the mean of 110.6 nGy h−1. The radiological parameters such as Raeq and activity index of the soil samples were also evaluated, which are the tools to assess the external radiation hazard due to building materials. The mean and range of the Raeq values were 168.7 and 132.9–210.4 Bq kg−1, respectively, whereas the activity index varied from 0.5 to 0.8 with the mean value of 0.62. These indices show that the indoor external dose due to natural radioactivity in the soil used for the construction will not exceed the dose criteria. The AKR was also evaluated from soil activity concentration and altitude correction of cosmic radiation contribution. The statistical tests such as Pearson correlation, spearman rank correlation, box and whisker plot, the Wilcoxon/Mann–Whitney test and chi-square test, were used to compare the measured AKR with evaluated AKR, which indicates good correlation.

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