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  • Author or Editor: S. Joshi x
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Summary

Enantiomeric resolution of two commonly used β-blockers, namely, (±)-propranolol and (±)-atenolol, has been achieved on silica gel layers which were bulkimpregnated with β-cyclodextrin. Solvent systems DMF-ethyl acetate-butanol (3:2:5, υ/υ) and butanol-acetic acid-ethyl acetate-ammonia (5:2:2:0.5, υ/υ) successfully resolved the enantiomers of (±)-propranolol and (±)-atenolol, respectively. The spots were located with iodine vapor. The effects of concentration of the chiral selector and mobile phase variation were also studied.

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Abstract  

The effect of some alkali metal bromides, iodides and sulphates on the diffusion of bromide, iodide and thallium ions, respectively, is studied at various temperatures. The activation energy required for the process of diffusion of these three ions in different supporting electrolytes have been calculated. It is found that activation energy for a given ion decreases in the reverse order of the charge density of alkali metal ions of the supporting electrolyte. This observed trend in activation energy is explained qualitatively by considering the distortion in the water structure caused by these ions and agar molecules.

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Abstract  

The extent of hydration of agar has been calculated from the self-diffusion studies of Br and I ions in agar gel medium. The measured obstruction effect caused by these macromolecules is related to the extent of hydration by Wang's equation. The value of hydration expressed in terms of grams of bound water per gram of anhydrous agar, in presence of NaI and NH4Br /0.1M/ electrolytes comes out to be about 5.2.

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Abstract  

The extraction behaviour is reported of zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazide in benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, di-isopropyl ether, ethyl acetate, amyl acetate, and amyl alcohol. The separation of the three elements has been achieved by the use of various masking agents, as well as by making use of the effect ofpH on their extractability.

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Abstract  

The purpose of the present study is the association of natural uranium in seawater with colloidal and suspended-particulate matter was determined. The separation of suspended particulate material (>0.45 µm) and colloidal fraction (as dissolved fractions) in seawater were done by suction and ultra filtration techniques. Seawater samples were collected at 1 km away from the shore and subjected to sequential fractionation in nine stages ranging from 2.7 µm to 1.1 nm. Suspended particulate matter were separated in three different size groups namely >2.7 µm, <2.7–>0.45 µm and <0.45–>0.22 µm by suction filtration using cellulose acetate and nitrate membranes filters. To concentrate the solution with colloidal particles <0.22 µm–1.1 nm (0.5 k Nominal Molecular Weight cut-off Limit {NMWL}), the solution obtained from filtration through <0.22 µm was passed through stirred ultra-filtration cell. The pH and conductivity at different stages of fractionation (dissolved) showed minor variations. The concentration of uranium was measured in suspended and dissolved fractions by using a pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm. In order to evaluate the role of mineral colloids in various stages of filtration, concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium were measured by using ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. The clay mineral at seawater pH (approximately 8) behave as negative ions and provides binding site for the positively charge species of uranium. Among the dissolved fraction, the maximum concentrations of colloidal uranium was observed about 4 times higher than that compared to average concentration of 6.93±3.10 ppb in other fractions. In the case of suspended particulate matter, the concentration of uranium was below detection limits (<1 ppb). The maximum concentration of Ca, Mg and K in the dissolved fraction were in the <1.1 nm fraction, while for suspended particulate matter, the concentration of Ca, Mg and K decreased with the decrease in size and it is highest in the fraction of 0.22 –0.45 µm.

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Abstract  

The measurements of natural radioactivity due to thorium isotopes have been carried out in estuarine sediments of Mandovi river (Goa). The geochemical behaviour of these sediments has been studied by leaching the samples with 5 % ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at pH 3.0 in order to investigate the processes occurring on the surface of the sediment particles and the distribution of natural thorium in estuarine sediments. The228Th/232Th activity ratios have been found to be in the range of 2.00 to 2.12. This anomaly between232Th and228Th has been attributed to the preferential leaching of228Ra by water flowing over these sediments. The activities of228Ra on the surface labile layers of the sediments have also been determined. The230Th/232Th activity ratios have been found to be in the range of 0.94 to 1.04. These ratios are mainly dependent on the precipitation action of230Th on adjacent sediments.

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Abstract  

The surface leaching of the labile component of uranium has been carried out in estuarine sediments of Zuari river in Goa. The measurements of alpha activities of238U,235U and234U in the leachates indicated a remarkable anomaly between the activities of238U and234U. The activity ratios of234U/238U in these leachates have been found to be in the range of 1.10 to 1.14. However, the activity ratios of235U/238U have been found to be 0.045 which is close to that in natural uranium. It has also been observed that the anomaly between238U and234U exists only on the surface organic layers of the backwater sediments of the Zuari river.

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Abstract  

Fluoride and sulphate complexing of Np(VI) has been studied by controlled-potential coulometry at a constant ionic strength. The values of 1 * and 2 * for fluoride complexes were found to be 9.4 and 8.9, respectively, at an ionic strength =0.5. At an ionic strength =1.0, 1 * and 2 * obtained were 6.6 and 10.5, respectively. Sulphate complexing of Np(VI) was studied only at an ionic strength =0.5. The value of 1 * obtained was 5.6.

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Abstract  

A method for controlled potential coulometric determination of neptunium by titration with internally electrolytically generated iron(II) has been developed. The method involves oxidation of Np to Np(VI) by Ce(IV), destruction of excess of Ce(IV) by NaNO2 followed by determination of neptunium by reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) by internal generation of Fe(II). The method was employed for various neptunium solution samples and a precision of ±0.25% at 2–5 mg level of neptunium was obtained.

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