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  • Author or Editor: T. Árendás x
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In a long-term experiment on continuous maize set up by Béla Győrffy in 1959, changes in biotic and abiotic environmental factors were studied over time. The long-term effects and stability of the cropping systems, the year effects and the genotype × environment interactions were analysed. The original aim of the experiment was to determine whether the NPK nutrients in farmyard manure could be replaced partially or entirely by inorganic NPK fertiliser. In the present experiment the effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser and the year effect on yield and yield stability were studied for four years (2005–2008). Various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertiliser induced significant changes in the yield, harvest index, thousand-kernel mass, grain number per ear and grain protein content.

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Inbred maize lines were treated with normal and double rates of post-emergence herbicides in a small-plot field experiment in one dry and one wet year. The chlorophyll a + b content of symptom-free ear-leaves was determined using a spectrophotometer after 50% silking in order to determine whether various rates of post-emergence herbicides had any effect on the chlorophyll content at flowering and how this was influenced by the type of year. The chlorophyll a + b content of the inbred lines was greatly dependent on the year, with values twice as high in the wet year as in the dry year. Treatment with tembotrione + isoxadifen-ethyl had no effect on the chlorophyll content in either year. Both rates of mesotrione + terbutylazine reduced the chlorophyll a + b content of one stress-sensitive inbred line in the dry year, but not in the wet year. In the wet year bentazone + dicamba increased the chlorophyll content, but only for one line was this effect significant irrespective of the dose. In the dry year the double dose caused a significant increase in this genotype, but the chlorophyll contents of the other lines did not differ significantly from the control.

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Six single-cross hybrids and their parental lines were inoculated with the FG36 Fusarium graminearum isolate in 2005 and 2006. In both years the degree of infection increased after artificial inoculation for both the hybrids and the inbred lines compared with the level of natural infection. The more severe stalk infection recorded in 2005 than in 2006 could be attributed to the weather conditions during flowering and harvesting.The 18 genotypes examined exhibited different levels of resistance to fusarium stalk rot. It could be concluded from the results that the resistance level of the female parent was decisive in the inheritance of the response to fusarium stalk rot (female component-hybrid r = 0.88, male component-hybrid r = 0.39).Some genotypes may be severely affected in epidemic years, while exhibiting a lower rate of infection in years with lower pathogen pressure. This suggests that successful breeding for resistance can only be carried out efficiently by means of artificial inoculation.

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