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  • Author or Editor: V. Manchanda x
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Abstract  

The equilibrium constants for coordination of methyl substituted pyridine N-oxides with plutonium(VI) thenoyl trifluoroacetonate in chloroform (Ks) follow an order similar to those of the analogous uranium(VI) complexes indicating steric hindrance to bonding in the case of ortho substituted pyridine N-oxides. The extraction constants (k) of Pu(VI) chelates with various β-diketones are found to be only marginally higher than the values for the corresponding uranium(VI) chelates which is in conformity with the close similarity of the ionic radii of PuO 2 2+ and UO 2 2+ .

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Abstract  

Extraction of uranium from tissue paper, synthetic soil, and from its oxides (UO2, UO3 and U3O8) was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol solutions of extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or N,N-dihexyl octanamide (DHOA). The effects of temperature, pressure, extractant/nitric acid (nitrate) concentration, and of hydrogen peroxide on uranium extraction were investigated. The dissolution and extraction of uranium in supercritical CO2 modified with TBP, from oxide samples followed the order: UO3 ≫ UO2 > U3O8. Addition of hydrogen peroxide in the modifier solution enhanced the dissolution/extraction of uranium in dynamic mode. DHOA appeared better than TBP for recovery of uranium from different oxide samples. Similar enhancement in uranium extraction was observed in static mode experiments in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Uranium estimation in the extracted fraction was carried out by spectrophotometry employing 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP) as the chromophore.

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Abstract  

Sorption behavior of 241Am (~10−9 M) on naturally occurring mineral pyrite (particle size: ≤70 μm) has been studied under varying conditions of pH (2–11), and ionic strength (0.01–1.0 M (NaClO4)). The effects of humic acid (2 mg/L), other complexing anions (1 × 10−4 M CO3 2−, SO4 2−, C2O4 2− and PO4 3−), di- and trivalent metal ions (1 × 10−3 M Mg2+, Ca2+ and Nd3+) on sorption behavior of Am3+ at a fixed ionic strength (I = 0.10 M (NaClO4)) have been studied. The sorption of 241Am on pyrite increased with pH from 2.8 (84%) to 8.1 (97%). The sorption of 241Am decreased with ionic strength at low pH values (2 ≤ pH ≤ 4), but was insensitive in the pH range of 4–10, suggesting the formation of outer-sphere complexes on pyrite surface at lower pH, and inner-sphere complexes at higher pH values. The sorption of 241Am increased in the presence of (i) humic acid (5 < pH < 7.5), and (ii) C2O4 2− (2 < pH < 3). By contrast, other complexing anions such as (carbonate, phosphate, and sulphate) showed negligible influence on 241Am sorption. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ ions showed marginal effect on the sorption profile of 241Am; while the presence of Nd3+ ion suppressed its sorption significantly under the conditions of present study. The sorption of 241Am on pyrite decreased with increased temperature indicating an exothermic process.

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Abstract  

Garware Polyester Film, an indigenously available material has been evaluated systematically as a nuclear track detector for the detection of fission fragments. The relative fission track detection efficiency of this film was found to be (86.0±4.0)%. The bulk etch rate, determined by the gravimetric method, was found to be 0.75±0.05 μm/h. The track etch rate was determined as 15.0±1.5 μm/h. This detector was employed for the estimation of uranium in seawater samples and the results obtained were compared with the results obtained by using the commonly used Lexan detector. Uranium fractions after chemical separation from seawater samples were also analyzed by alpha-spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques and the results were compared with that obtained by the fission track method. Fission track method has the advantage, as it does not require any chemical separation. The indigenously available polyester film (polyethylene terphthalate) appears to be a good substitute of Lexan as nuclear track detector.

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Abstract  

The work describes a procedure of preconcentration and separation of trace amounts of Pd(II) by solid phase extraction of the metal ion by dithiooxamide groups incorporated into a matrix of polystyrene-divinylbenzene whereas the determination of palladium has been carried out by radiotracer technique using 109Pd (T 1/2 = 13.43 hr, E γ = 311, 647 keV). The experiments were carried out using both batch method and column operation. Parameters such as the amount of resin, effect of pH, equilibration rate, sorption and desorption of metal ions have been studied. The maximum sorption capacity for palladium was found to be 0.10 mmol·g−1 at pH 6.0. The method is rapid, has a good accuracy and can be used routinely.

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Abstract  

A method for the separation of Fe(III) from Co(II) in nitric acid medium has been developed using 30% Cyanex-923 in n-dodecane. Nitric acid extraction studies (0.5 to 6.0M) as a function of Cyanex-923 concentration (10-30%) suggest the probable extraction of more than one species of Cyanex-923. HNO3 complex. Third phase formation was observed at 8.0M HNO3. Extraction of Fe(III) increases monotonously with acidity (1.0-7.0M) whereas that of Co(II) is negligible at all acidities. Fe(III) was quantitatively loaded in the organic phase in two contacts at 7.0M HNO3

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Abstract  

Studies on the individual potentiometric determination of uranium and plutonium in a single aliquot have been initiated recently in our laboratory. It was required to adapt the reported procedures (for the precise determination of uranium and plutonium individually when present together in a sample) at various stages to make them suitable for the successive application of the procedures to the same aliquot. Two alternative schemes are proposed in the present work. In the first, plutonium is determined by HClO4 oxidation followed by the determination of total uranium and plutonium by Zn(Hg) reduction. In the second, plutonium is determined by AgO oxidation following the determination of total uranium and plutonium by Zn(Hg) reduction. Amount of uranium is computed in both cases from the difference of two determinations. Precision for the assay of plutonium and uranium was found to be ±0.25% and ±0.35%, respectively, at milligram levels.

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Abstract  

Three different resins containing ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), viz. PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) resin, composite AMP resin and ALIX (a bisphenol based resin), were evaluated for their irradiation stability. The studies included batch as well as column studies and were carried out for cesium uptake behaviour at 3 M acidity. The resin beads were irradiated to varying dose viz., 0 MRad, 10 MRad, 20 MRad, 50 MRad and 100 MRad. The time taken to attain equilibrium was rather long and about 2–5 h were found to be required for attaining equilibrium in batch studies. Batch Cs(I) uptake studies revealed no significant effect on the K d values in case of the PMMA resin while in case of the composite resin and ALIX resin, a decrease in the K d was observed as a function of irradiation dose. The resin capacity indicated contrasting behaviour with irradiation dose for the resins. Column runs have been carried out for the uptake of radio cesium using both unirradiated and irradiated resins using feed solutions containing 3 MHNO3. The loading capacities of the resins were found to be proportional to their Cs loading capacities observed in batch studies. Study revealed that the composite AMP had the maximum and PMMA has the least loading capacity. Results of these studies show that these AMP based resins can be used for cesium separation from acidic nuclear waste.

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Abstract  

N,N,N′,N′-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) has been used for the preferential extraction of 90Y from its mixture with 90Sr from HNO3 as well as HCl medium. The separation efficiencies have been found out under varying experimental conditions. The extracted species were determined from T2EHDGA concentration variation experiments carried out at 3 M nitric acid as well as HCl and were found out to be Y(X3)3·3(TEHDGA)(o) for both the extraction systems, where X = NO3 and Cl, respectively. Comparison of the T2EHDGA and TODGA based separation methods is also made. In order to avoid third phase formation, iso-decanol has been used as the modifier in all the studies. The modifier content was optimized to 30% for 4 M HCl and 20% for 6 M HNO3 as the feed aqueous phases. Separation schemes were developed for the separation of carrier free 90Y and the purity was checked by the half-life measurement method.

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Abstract  

Present work summairzes a method for the estimation of uranium in the presence of plutonium involving the reduction of uranium to U/IV/ and plutonium to Pu/III/ by Zn/Hg/ followed by the selective oxidation of Pu/III/to Pu/IV/with HNO3 catalyzed by molybdate in the presence of large sulphate concenration [5M H2SO4+1.5M /NH4/2SO4]. The oxidation of U/IV/ by K2Cr2O7 is then carried out in the presence of excess of Fe/III/ and Al/NO3/3 to a sharp potentiometric end point. R.S.D. obtained for 20 determinations of uranium /3–6 mg/ was 0.3% in the presence of 0.35 mg of plutonium. Larger quantity for plutonium was found to interfere.

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