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Abstract  

5–25 g of copper has been determined by exchange with zinc-65 labelled zinc sulphide. The effect of diverse ions on the determination has also been reported.

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Abstract  

A method is described for the simultaneous multielement determination of yttrium and lanthanides at microgram level. This is based on the preconcentration of these lanthanides on to 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) modified naphthalene. The optimal conditions for quantitative preconcentration viz., pH, amount of PAN modified naphthalene, time of stirring and aqueous phase volume were systematically evaluated. The quantitation of lanthanides was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer, employing241Am annular source, via their characteristic K X-rays. The developed procedure gave reliable results in the analysis of xenotime samples.

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Abstract  

A simple method is reported in this paper to estimate229Th in the presence of228Th. The total activity of229Th and228Th was determined by following the alpha activity growth (using a liquid scintillation counter and proportional counter) of purified thorium samples. The activity ratio of229Th/228Th was determined by alpha spectrometry. From the initial total activity and ratio, disintegration rates of229Th and228Th were calculated. The values obtained for the activities have a precision better than ±2%.

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Abstract  

A new inorganic exchanger zirconiumphosphate-ammonium phosphotungstate (Zr–P-APW) has been synthesized in granular form suitable for column work. TheK d values for different metal ions were determined and the affinity order was found to be CsRb>Zr>Ce> rare earths. Sodium exchange capacity, pH-titration curve, breakthrough capacities for cesium (both in pure HNO3 and in different types of simulated nuclear wastes) and elution of cesium from the Zr–P-APW column have been studied. A selective method for the removal of cesium from other radioactive fission products has been developed. The exchanger was found to be stable to a -radiation dose of 108 rads in presence and absence of 2M nitric acid.

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Abstract  

Zirconium molybdoarsenate (ZrMAs), an inorganic ion exchanger, has been synthesized and the suitable conditions to separate cesium-137 from fission products waste solution are suggested.

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Abstract

This communication deals with the waste heat recovery from the industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning system by introducing Canopus heat exchanger. There is a considerable amount of low-grade heat available in large-capacity systems. To recover this low-grade heat, a Canopus heat exchanger is introduced between compressor and condenser components. The system feasibility is studied with various operating parameters and its effect on heat recovery factor and overall COP of the system. The parametric results obtained for different eco-friendly working fluids, such as R-134a and R-507a, have been presented. It is found that, in general, overall COP of the system is improved without affecting the actual performance of the system. The potential of low-grade heat availability is increased with increasing cooling capacity.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: P. Sarita, G. Naga Raju, A. Pradeep, Tapash Rautray, B. Seetharami Reddy, S. Bhuloka Reddy, and V. Vijayan

Abstract  

Trace elemental imbalance in human beings is postulated to exert action, directly or indirectly, on the carcinogenic process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood sera of breast cancer patients and analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls. This work was also intended to establish the role played by the trace elements in carcinogenic process. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for trace elemental analysis of blood sera of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The PIXE measurements were carried out using a 2.5 MeV collimated proton beam from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. On comparing the trace elemental content in the sera of breast cancer patients with those of control subjects, significant variations were observed in the levels of most of the trace elements. The serum levels of almost all the elements except Fe and Cu were observed to be depressed in cancer patients with respect to normal subjects. However, this variation was significant only for Ti (P < 0.00005), Cr (P < 0.005), Mn (P < 0.0005), Ni (P < 0.01), Zn (P < 0.000001), and Se (P < 0.05). On the other hand, significant elevations were observed in serum Fe (P < 0.05) and Cu (P < 0.005) levels in cancer patients. The findings presented in this paper give guidelines for future study into the possible roles and interactions of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic process.

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A field experiment was conducted in Vertisols at Bijapur during 1994-96 to study the effect of tillage practices and integrated nutrient management on winter sorghum yield and soil nutrient availability. The increase in winter sorghum yield with deep tillage over medium and shallow tillage was 27 and 57% in 1994-95 as compared to 18 and 34% in 1995-96. Deep tillage resulted in 22 and 45% higher yield as compared to medium and shallow tillage in the pooled data. This was mainly due to conservation and increased availability of moisture and nutrients, i.e. N, P and K. The higher availability of nutrients in the topsoil (0-0.15 m) as compared to the subsoil (0.15-0.30 m) was due to the application of nutrients in the topsoil layer and the higher rate of mineralization. Among the organic materials applied, Leucaena loppings at 2.5 t ha-1 led to a significantly (9%) higher yield (1636 kg ha-1) over vermicompost (1500 kg ha-1) and was on par with farmyard manure (1572 kg ha-1) in the pooled data and during both years of the study. The higher percentage increase in grain yield with Leucaena application was due to the better moisture conservation and availability of major nutrients, i.e. N, P and K. Winter sorghum responded significantly to N application at 25 kg ha-1 in 1994-95, whereas in 1995-96 and in the pooled data the response varied up to 50 kg N ha-1. In the pooled data, the grain yield increased by 17 and 24% with the application of 25 and 50 kg N ha-1 compared with the control. The higher yields obtained with the application of nitrogen were due to the better availability of nutrients, especially N, as these soils are low in available N.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Rufus, H. Subramanian, S. Velmurugan, Santanu Bera, G. Reddy, V. Sankara Sastry, and S. Narasimhan

Abstract  

A pinhole developed near the tube sheet in the steam generator (SG) tube of a pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) caused leak of primary coolant containing radioactive contaminants (137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co) to the shell side. The sludge collected from the tube sheet region was found to have adsorbed these radionuclides at the high temperature (230-240 °C) that prevailed in the SG. An attempt has been made to evaluate the quantity of activity retained in the various oxide phases that constitute the sludge and their mode of pick-up. The sludge was characterized by XRD and XPS, which showed the presence of various oxides of iron, copper and nickel along with the silicates of calcium, magnesium and aluminum. Gamma-spectrometry of the sludge confirmed the presence of 137Cs134Cs and 60Co to an extent of 7.6, 1.3 and 0.9 mCi/g of sludge, respectively. Selective dissolution in various EDTA based formulations and equilibration with nitric acid and magnesium chloride solutions helped to understand the quantity of activity adsorbed by various constituents of the sludge. It was concluded that a major portion of cesium was picked up by a reversible ion exchange process on various oxide constituents and about 10% by an irreversible specific adsorption process on insoluble silicates. Also, it was proved that 60Co was specifically adsorbed over the oxides of iron and nickel.

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Abstract  

Thorium along with its daughter products present in the soil is one of the major contributors to the external gamma dose in the environment. To establish the dose levels, quantification of thorium contents in soil samples is very important. As a part of pre-operational environmental radiological surveillance, a total of 23 soil and six sand samples were collected from different locations around the proposed nuclear power plant site of Jaitapur, Maharashtra. Thorium concentrations in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were irradiated with neutrons in Apsara reactor at a neutron flux of ~5 × 1011 cm−2 s−1 and radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Relative method of INAA was used for quantification of thorium utilizing 311.9 keV gamma ray of 233Pa, the daughter product of 233Th. The concentrations of thorium in the soil and sand samples were in the ranges of 4.0–18.8 and 1.2–6.2 mg kg−1 respectively.

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