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  • Author or Editor: W. Ali x
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Summary

Three simple, sensitive, and validated methods were developed for the quantitative determination of fosinopril sodium (FOS) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in the presence of an HCZ impurity, chlorothiazide (CZ). The first method (I) was the ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD), in which a standard spectrum of 8 µg mL−1 HCZ was used as a divisor, and the difference in amplitude values at 204.6 and 231.2 nm and 290 and 302.6 nm was used for the determination of FOS and CZ, respectively. Meanwhile, for the determination of HCZ, a standard spectrum of 6 µg mL−1 CZ was the chosen divisor, and the amplitude difference at 275 nm and 293.6 nm was selected for the calculation of its concentrations. The second method (II) was mean centering of ratio spectra spectro-photometric method (MCR), which depended on the implementation of the mean-centered ratio spectra in two successive steps and the measurement of the amplitudes of the mean-centered second ratio spectra at 243.4 nm for CZ and peak-to-peak amplitudes at 215.6 and 215.8 nm for FOS and at 223.8 and 224 nm for HCZ. On the other hand, the third method (III) was thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry at which the chromatographic separation of this ternary mixture was performed using pre-activated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates and a developing system mixture consisting of ethyl acetate-chloroform-methanol-formic acid (60:40:5:0.5, by volume) with ultraviolet (UV) scanning at 215 nm. The developed methods were validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and were successfully used for the determination of FOS and HCZ in their pharmaceutical formulations. Also, a statistical comparison between the developed methods and the reported HPLC method was attained. Using Student's t-test and F-test, the results confirmed that there was not any significant difference between them regarding accuracy and precision.

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Higher plant population and nitrogen management is an adopted approach for improving crop productivity from limited land resources. Moreover, higher plant density and nitrogen regimes may increase the risk of stalk lodging, which is a consequence of complex interplant competition of individual organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic change in morphology, chemical compositions and lignin promoting enzymes of the second basal inter-nodes altering lodging risk controlled by planting density and nitrogen levels. A field trial was conducted at the Mengcheng research station (33°9′44″N, 116°32′56″E), Huaibei plain, Anhui province, China. A randomized complete block design was adopted, in which four plant densities, i.e., 180, 240, 300, and 360 × 104 ha−1 and four N levels, i.e., 0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1 were studied. The two popular wheat varieties AnNong0711 and YanNong19 were cultivated. Results revealed that the culm lodging resistance (CLRI) index of the second basal internodes was positively and significantly correlated with light interception, lignin and cellulose content. The lignin and cellulose contents were significantly and positive correlated to light interception. The increased planting density and nitrogen levels declined the lignin and its related enzymes activities. The variety AnNong0711 showed more resistive response to lodging compared to YanNong19. Overall our study found that increased planting densities and nitrogen regimes resulted in poor physical strength and enzymatic activity which enhanced lodging risk in wheat varieties. The current study demonstrated that stem bending strength of the basal internode was significantly positive correlated to grains per spike. The thousand grain weight and grain yield had a positive and significant relationship with stem bending strength of the basal internode. The results suggested that the variety YanNong19 produces higher grain yield (9298 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1, and 180 kg ha−1 nitrogen, while AnNong0711 produced higher grain yield (10178.86 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1 and with 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen. Moreover, this combination of nitrogen and planting density enhanced the grain yield with better lodging resistance.

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