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Summary

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.

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Three field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of soil Zn, foliar Zn, and soil N application on Zn and phytic acid concentrations in wheat grain grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil. Results showed significant genotypic variation in grain Zn concentrations among fifteen wheat cultivars commonly grown in northwest China. Soil Zn application had mixed effects, increasing grain Zn concentrations of some cultivars by as much as 21%, but reducing grain Zn concentrations of other cultivars by as much as 14%. In comparison, foliar Zn application increased grain Zn concentrations by 26 to 115%. Grain Zn concentrations were 14% larger in the combined (foliar Zn + soil Zn) treatment compared to the foliar Zn treatment, but the added cost of soil Zn application may not be economically justifiable. Wheat grain phytic acid concentrations and phytic acid: Zn molar ratios were less in the foliar Zn and (foliar Zn + soil Zn) treatments compared to the soil Zn and the unfertilized treatments. This indicated that foliar Zn increased Zn bioavailability. Best results were obtained when foliar Zn was applied at early grain filling. Overall, these findings indicate that foliar Zn application to Zn-efficient cultivars could reduce human Zn deficiency in regions with potentially Zn-deficient soil.

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Abstract  

57Co was produced with high pure nature iron irradiated by 8.5MeV deuterons. TBP-benzene extraction method and anion-exchange method were used to separate and purify it. The purified57Co was prepared into standard solution of about 30 to 50 g Co2+/ml carrier concentration and about 0.1 mol/l HCl. The specific activity of the standard solution was measured with 4 (ppc)- coincidence counting method. The final result was 476.82(1±0.42%)Bq/mg.

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Some wild species of the genus Oryza such as O. rufipogon and O. longistaminata show a high level of resistance to pests and diseases including rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe grisea). To transfer blast resistance from wild species into cultivatedvarieties (O. sativa), interspecific hybrids were produced and anther culture was used toaccelerate the procedure of resistance breeding. Anther culture efficiency depended onboth the medium and the genotype of the cultivated varieties and the wild species. Afterinoculation with a mixture of six strains with wide spectrum virulence, all the F1 hybridswere resistant to blast; the F2 plants segregated, from high resistance to susceptibility, anda similar result was obtained for the H1 and H2 plants. At the H3 stage, blast resistancetended to be stable and almost 100% of inoculated H5 plants were highly resistant to riceblast. For agronomic characteristics, the F2 and H1 showed segregation, but no significantdifferences were seen between the cultivated parents and the H2 to H5 generations. Theresults demonstrate that blast resistance genes can be transferred from wild rice speciesinto cultivated varieties through crossing and anther culture, and the H5 can be used asstable lines in future breeding programmes.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
S. Lahiri
,
X. Wu
,
Yang Weifan
,
Xu Yanbing
, and
Yuan Shuanggui

Abstract  

Liquid liquid extraction of 46Sc was studied with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). It has been found that PMBP extracts almost quantitatively scandium from 10-3 to 10-2M HCl solutions. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) has a pronounced antagonistic effect on the extraction process.

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Starch is a product of photosynthetic activities in leaves. Wheat yields largely depend on photosynthetic carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism in flag leaves. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with flag leaf starch content (FLSC) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was completed using unconditional and conditional QTL analyses. The FLSC of this population during the early grain-filling stage was measured at six stages in six environments. Combining unconditional and conditional QTL mapping methods, eight unconditional QTLs and nine conditional QTLs were detected, with five QTLs identified as unconditional and conditional QTLs. Four unconditional QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1B, qFLS-1D-1, qFLS-4A, and qFLS-7D-1) and one conditional QTL (i.e. qFLS-3A-1) were identified in two of six environments. Two QTLs (qFLS-1D-2 and qFLS-7D-1), which significantly affected the FLSC, were identified using the unconditional QTL mapping method, while three QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1A, qFLS-3A-1, and qFLS-7D-1) were detected using the conditional QTL mapping method. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic mechanism and regulatory network underlying the diurnal FLSC in wheat.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
X. Zhang
,
Y. Chen
,
Y. Wei
,
W. Lu
,
H. Liao
,
Y. Liu
,
X. Yang
,
X. Li
,
L. Yang
,
L. Li
, and
R. Li

Partial abortion of gametes possessing S-5 j in S-5 i / S-5 j genotype at locus S-5 is responsible for hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies in rice ( Oryza sativa L.), while a single wide compatibility (WC) allele S-5 n can restore normal hybrid fertility between the two groups. In this study, Pei’ai 64S, one of the most popular WC line widely used for subspecific hybrid rice breeding program in South China was studied for location of its S-5 locus. Twenty SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers derived from Cornell SSR linkage map and 9 developed using sequences from GenBank database were employed to perform bulked segregant analysis of the mapping population derived from a three-way cross (Pei’ai 64S/T8//Akihikari) to tag fine location of the hybrid sterility locus, S-5 . This S-5 locus was mapped on chromosome 6 approximately 0.2 cM from GXR6 and RM276 SSR markers. This tight linkage of the markers and the S-5 locus would be very useful for efficient marker-assisted selection for WC varieties and for map-based cloning of the gene.

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Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of strontium acetate hemihydrate has been studied by TG-DTA/DSC and TG coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under non-isothermal conditions in nitrogen gas from ambient temperature to 600°C. The TG-DTA/DSC experiments indicate the decomposition goes mainly through two steps: the dehydration and the subsequent decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate into strontium carbonate. TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved products from the non-oxidative thermal degradation indicates mainly the release of water, acetone and carbon dioxide. The model-free isoconversional methods are employed to calculate the E a of both steps at different conversion α from 0.1 to 0.9 with increment of 0.05. The relative constant apparent E a values during dehydration (0.5<α<0.9) of strontium acetate hemihydrate and decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate (0.5<α<0.9) suggest that the simplex reactions involved in the corresponding thermal events. The most probable kinetic models during dehydration and decomposition have been estimated by means of the master plots method.

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Abstract  

The exfoliated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ intercalated polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) in the presence of organic-intercalated montmorillonite (OMMT). Their structures and thermal properties were characterized. The results showed that layered silicates are well exfoliated and uniformly distributed in PVC matrix during in situ intercalated polymerization of VC in the presence of OMMT. The glass transition temperatures of PVC phases in the PVC/MMT nanocomposites are all lower than that of pristine PVC due to the incorporation of the exfoliated silicate layers in PVC matrix. The 5% mass loss temperature (T 5%), the dehydrochlorination temperature (T max1) of the PVC matrix decreased due to the free and interlayer water in MMT, the low thermal stability, and the enhanced dehydrochlorination of the PVC matrix by alkyl ammonium pre-treated MMT. However, the thermal decomposition temperature of the dehydrochlorinated PVC (T max2) and char at 600C are slightly increased in the presence of silicate layers.

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