Thermotropic phase behaviors of paeonol-encapsulated liposomes containing stigmasterol or cholesterol have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. We compared the thermotropic phase behavior of pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, sterol/DPPC liposomes, and paeonol/sterol/DPPC liposomes increasing the ratio of paeonol to sterol from 0 to 1, by analyzing the calorimetric parameters of main phase transition of liposomes including phase transition temperature (onset temperature and peak temperature) and phase transition cooperativity. The results showed that paeonol could incorporate into the hydrophobic region of DPPC, thus, decrease phase transition temperature of DPPC. Though stigmasterol interacts with DPPC less favorably than cholesterol, thermotropic phase behavior of paeonol/cholesterol/DPPC liposomes and that of paeonol/stigmasterol/DPPC liposomes are very similar. A phase separation occurred when the molar ratio of paeonol to sterol reached 1:1 in paeonol-encapsulated liposomes, where a paeonol-rich domain coexisted with a sterol-rich domain. The packing order of acyl chains of DPPC in sterol-rich domain is a little higher than that in paeonol-rich domain.
Authors:Yu-Fu Yang, Ming-Chia Hsieh, and Man-Ting Ku
The traditional baseball instruction strategies were mainly conducted by the instructors with oral explanation and exemplification while students had to improve their performance in athletic activities through continuous practice. During the learning process of athletic skills, students oftentimes posed less confidence due to unskilled body movement resulting in lower achievement sense. Finally, they started to reject the engagement in relevant athletic activities and even never practice anymore. Therefore, this research aimed to explore the influence on the learning motivation and the performance of athletic skills made by students in the conventionally instructive mode by introducing the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) instruction strategies of the kinect baseball learning system. Research results indicated: (1) after the kinect baseball learning system was introduced into instruction, it positively affected the learning motivation of students; (2) after the kinect baseball learning system was introduced into instruction, it positively affected the performance of athletic skills of students.