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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Bintul Zehra
,
Ali Salem
,
Souphavanh Senesavath
,
Saied Kashkash
, and
Zoltan Orban

Abstract

Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Over ten billion tons of concrete are being produced each year resulting in exhaustion of natural materials and an enormous carbon footprint. One of the primary goals of concrete technology today is to reduce the use of Portland cement and natural fine aggregates by partially replacing them with various waste materials and by-products of industrial processes. The paper summarizes the results of a study where the partial replacement of river sand and Portland cement was successfully applied using steel slag aggregate, silica fume and glass waste.

Open access

This paper presents a nonstandard experimental procedure for detection of the presence of salts in building materials. The proposed tests helped modeling the deterioration of specific historical building materials caused by salts. The specimens were subject to visual survey and scanning electron microscope analyses, after submerging them in salt solutions. The results showed the damage of brick, cement based mortar and lime based mortar, caused by various concentrations of sulphate and chloride solutions. By this method various types of salt crystals could be identified. In cement and lime based mortars larger extents of salt deposits were found. A relevant difference between the control samples and the salt treated samples was observed.

Restricted access

Abstract

Diagnostics is an important and challenging task of the structural analysis and condition assessment of historic masonry structures. However the interpretation of the results of the measurements, especially for buildings made from brick and stone, is to be more subjective than that for concrete structures. Therefore improvement of the reliability of the used techniques and finding better correlations between the test results and the mechanical properties of masonry has proven to be of great importance.

While several diagnostic procedures are commonly used in practice to test mechanical properties of masonry, e.g. Schmidt hammer test, analysis of drilled samples, penetration tests, etc. the results of these methods are considered reliable under laboratory conditions, several additional factors have to be taken into account in case of an in-situ application of these methods, that may largely affect the obtained results and conclusions. The results of the diagnostic procedures therefore need to be interpreted with a view to these environmental factors.

The paper focuses on the practical use of several test methods for historic masonries via a real case study. The presented case study attempts to demonstrate benefits from the combined application of Pendulum Schmidt Hammer, moisture meter and scanning electron microscopy.

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Éva Bácsné Bába
,
György Norbert Szabados
,
Szabolcs Gergely Orbán
,
Zoltán Bács
,
Renátó Balogh
, and
Sándor Kovács

Abstract

Many sports organisations operate as non-profits, but the emphasis and role of for-profits in this sector cannot be avoided. Today, sports activities are connected to the business sector and generate profit, hence, sports sector is a decisive part of the economy. Sport profile companies differ in their organisational strategy formulation approach. The main focus was to learn more about their strategy approach and market behaviour. 350 sports business organisations were involved in a survey of 3,248 companies, and the Chi-square test, variance analysis, and principal component analysis were applied to the sample. Results showed that 75.7% of the responding sports companies had no written strategic plan. The availability of written strategies seemed to depend on the organisation's scale. The market-following behaviour was confirmed in the case of smaller sports enterprises. Fitness service providers appeared to follow a market-leading behaviour. Growth, investment, and development naturally emerged as essential factors for companies with higher sales revenue and operating sports facilities, and they were relatively less important in sports goods production and trade. Most of the results showed that in the sports business sector, large-scale organisations focus on strategic-related issues more than other players in the industry.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Ivan V. Abramov
,
Pavel V. Lekomtsev
,
Аlexander V. Romanov
,
Аndrey V. Buchkin
,
Zarina S. Saidova
, and
Zoltan Orban

The paper presents an experimental research on anchoring devices developed for the pre-tensioning of fiber reinforced polymer tendons in the stress range between 40 and 70% of tensile strength. The technique of testing, the criteria of assessing the load capacity and the influence of preloading applied on the anchor wedges on the initial tendons slippage are described. The optimal technical configurations of the anchoring device have been obtained, including parameters regarding the necessary prior anchorage of the tendon ends based on the strength properties of the tendon bar and the requirements to avoid slippage during the tensile tests.

Open access