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  • Author or Editor: A. Ali x
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Abstract  

Studies were conducted to measure the effect of irradiation treatment on thermoluminescence (TL) values in dried fruits such as apricots, dates and raisins. For this purpose, inorganic dust particulate (minerals) adhering to the fruit surface was collected from untreated and treated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) samples. The TL responses of the isolated minerals was measured in the temperature range of 80–320°C at an increasing rate of 10°C/s. It was observed that peak of the TL signals appeared at 200°C in each case and generally the magnitude of the peak signals was almost 103 times that of unirradiated samples. Regression and correlation analysis of the data indicated strong relationship between radiation absorbed dose and TL values at each temperature (r≥0.98). It was concluded that TL measurements could serve as a fast and reliable method for distinguishing as well as determining absorbed dose in irradiated dried apricot, date and raisin.

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Abstract  

Extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid with synergistic mixture of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and di-butyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) is reported in this paper. The influence of various factors such as D2EHPA concentration, DBBP concentration, phosphoric acid concentration, contact time, aqueous: organic phase’s ratio (aq:org) and temperature on the degree of extraction has been established. The data on the effect of temperature on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is −23.12 kJ/mol. Uranium extracted by D2EHPA–DBBP is further subjected to a second cycle of extraction and scrubbing impurities. The uranium is finally converted to a high purity UO3 product using precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment at 375 °C.

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Simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, and validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC)‒densitometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), pseudoephedrine HCl (PSE), and ibuprofen (IBF) in tablet dosage form. In method A, reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC analysis was performed on Zorbax C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size i.d.), using a mobile phase consisting of methanol–acetonitrile–distilled water (pH 4) using orthophosphoric acid in the ratio (80:10:10, v/v) and flow rate of 0.7 mL min−1. Quantification was achieved with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 220 nm. In method B, TLC analysis was carried out on an aluminum-backed sheet of silica gel 60 F254 layer using ethyl acetate‒methanol‒ammonia (8:2:0.8, v/v) as the mobile phase. Quantification was carried out with UV detection at 262 nm. The validation of the proposed methods was applied according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the determination of the cited drugs in bulk powder and commercial dosage form.

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Abstract  

The trace element concentrations of eight elements (Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the scalp hair of 49 normal and 55 malnourished children of the Bangladesh population, in the age group of 1 to 5 years were analyzed by the external beam PIXE method to establish their baseline values in normal children for pre-diagnostic screening of deficiency and excess in malnutrition. The results of this investigation show that the ranges of trace elements in hair are somewhat wide. For example, the normal Zn level has the range of 63–377 g·g–1 for 49 subjects. The reasons for these large individual deviations are unknown till now. The average of the elemental concentrations between normal and malnourished groups are compared (t-test,p<0.05). A correlation study has been done on each pair of original data by a non-parametric Speaman's rank test. The frequency distributions of the elements are presented and the results are compared with the data reported in the literature. A substantive correspondence between the present data in hair of both the study groups and the literature values from different countries have been observed but they did not show any regular dependence on the nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low Cu content in the hair of malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders as evidenced from this study.

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Summary  

Modification of the physico-chemical properties of hydrous titanium dioxide (TiO2) was conducted by using binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for the preparation of larger size particles having higher granular strength. The thermal behavior of the obtained composite has been studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Sorption behavior of the TiO2-PAN composite for removal of some hazardous radionuclides has been studied at different conditions such as, pH, contact time, ion concentrations and reaction temperature as well as the drying temperature. The effects of interfering ions as well as some complexing agents on the distribution ratio of the sorption process have been determined. As a result of the obtained data the optimum conditions for the removal of the studied radionuclides were recommended.

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The current method to detect antibody titre against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in chickens is based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using whole virus as coating antigen. Coating the ELISA plates requires a purified or at least semi-purified preparation of virus as antigen, which needs special skills and techniques. In this study, instead of using whole virus, recombinant protein of hexahistidine tag (His 6 tag) and VPX protein of IBDV expressed in E. coli was used as an alternative antigen to coat the ELISA plates. There was a good correlation coefficient (R 2 = 0.972) between the results of the ELISA using plates coated with monoclonal antibody against His 6 tag and those of the commercial IBDV ELISA kit. Hence, His 6 tag and VPX recombinant protein expressed in E. coli has the potential for the development of ELISA for the measurement of IBDV-specific antibody.

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Abstract  

An investigation on the level of some minor and trace elements in some varieties of meat (beef, mutton and chicken) consumed in Bangladesh is reported. In this study, protoninduced X-ray emission (PIXE) and radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used for analytical measurements. In PIXE measurements, the samples were exposed to the proton beam in air as 1 mm thick pellets and irradiated with 2.0 MeV protons having the beam intensity of 30 nA for characteristic X-ray excitation, whereas in XRF, the samples were excited for 5000 seconds with a 10 mCi109Cd annular X-ray source. The elemental concentrations of Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in the samples by comparison with X-ray yield curves constructed from IAEA and NBS standard reference materials. The significance of the results is dicussed in relation to human health and diseases.

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The B(S) genome diploids (2n = 2x = 14) are a unique reservoir of genetic diversity that can provide wheat breeders a rich source of allelic variation for stress traits that limit productivity. Restricted in practical use essentially due to their complex chromosomal behavior, these diploids have been in limited practical usage. The classic utilization example has been the suppression activity of the Ph locus and role in alien genetic transfer aspects that has been a standard in cytogenetic manipulation studies. For applied efforts focusing on Aegilops speltoides researchers in CIMMYT initiated an ambitious program to make AABBBB(SS) synthetics and made progress by generating over 50 such synthetics. Of these 20 were available for this study in which phenology and powdery mildew screening were evaluated. Four of these 20 synthetics appeared to be useful sources for further exploitation in breeding. These were entries 6, 9, 10 and 11 suited for exploitation in pre-breeding, with positive phenological characters particularly high thousand-kernel weight and are cytologically near euploid at 2n = 6x = 42. The subtle hyper (43) and hypoploid number would not negate their applied use potential. Preference however goes to genotypes 9 and 11.

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Abstract  

Changes in the thermal conductivities of paraffin and mono ethylene glycol (MEG) as a function of β-SiC nanoparticle concentration and size was studied. An enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity was found for both fluids (i.e., both paraffin and MEG) upon the addition of nanoparticles. Although an enhancement in thermal conductivity was found, the degree of enhancement depended on the nanoparticle concentration in a complex way. An increase in particle-to-particle interactions is thought to be the cause of the enhancement. However, the enhancement became muted at higher particle concentrations compared to lower ones. This phenomenon can be related to nanoparticles interactions. An improvement in the thermal conductivities for both fluids was also found as the nanoparticle size shrank. It is believed that the larger Brownian motion for smaller particles causes more particle-to-particle interactions, which, in turn, improves the thermal conductivity. The role that the base-fluid plays in the enhancement is complex. Lower fluid viscosities are believed to contribute to greater enhancement, but a second effect, the interaction of the fluid with the nanoparticle surface, can be even more important. Nanoparticle-liquid suspensions generate a shell of organized liquid molecules on the particle surface. These organized molecules more efficiently transmit energy, via phonons, to the bulk of the fluid. The efficient energy transmission results in enhanced thermal conductivity. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of the suspensions were compared to a variety of models. None of the models proved to adequately predict the thermal conductivities of the nanoparticle suspensions.

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Abstract  

The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1–15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester.

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