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  • Author or Editor: A. Garg x
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Abstract  

Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopic studies of a series of iron(III) complexes of dicarboxylic acids, maleic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azealic and sebacic have been carried out at room temperature. All complexes exhibit a quadrupole doublet with isomer shift () values in the range of 0.62 –0.72 mm·s–1 (with respect to SNP) and quadrupole splitting, EQ=0.53–0.74 mm· s–1. It is observed that tris complexes are formed up to pimelic acid, while bis complexes are formed those for the other three acids. Isomer shift () values do not vary significantly but EQ values show a somewhat regular trend. Magnetic moment data indicate high spin Fe(III) in octahedral geometry.

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Abstract  

Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented.

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Abstract  

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) leaves, known as nervine tonic in Ayurveda, and its aqueous (BA), methanolic (BM) and aqueous–methanolic (BAM) extracts were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Fe, Na, K, Ca, P, Cl) and 18 trace (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) elements by INAA. BAM extract showed maximum contents of Na, K, Cl and significant amounts of Mn, Co, Zn. It was also found as effective scavenger of DPPH radicals with 33.5% total phenolic content, highest γ-ray radioprotective effect and higher anti lipid peroxidation activity.

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Abstract  

Trikatu, an Ayurvedic formulation of three dried powder spices, ginger, black pepper and pipali in equal proportion is widely used to promote digestion, assimilation and bioavailibility of food. It works synergistically, and hence, is more effective than an equal amount of any of its three ingredients taken separately. Five different brands and its three constituents were analyzed for 31 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using 5-minute and 6-hour thermal neutron irradiation followed by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Heavy toxic metals Cd, Ni and Pb determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were found below permissible limits. Most elements in different brands vary in a narrow range. Ginger is particularly enriched in Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn whereas black pepper is enriched in Cr, Se, P and Zn. Cu/Zn shows linear relationship (r = 0.92) with Cu whereas Fe and Mn exhibit inverse correlation (r = −0.89) in different brands. Hydro distillation of pipali yielded an essential oil whereby 10 organic constituents were identified by GC-MS. Also barbituric and tannic acids were isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of pipali.

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Abstract  

Transition metal dithiocarbamate complexes, [M(S2CN(C2H5)(CH2CH2OH)] (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectra. Thermal decomposition of all the complexes occurs in two or three stages. The first stage in all the complexes is always fast with 65-70% mass loss. In all cases the end product is metal oxide except in the case of cobalt complex which gives Co metal as an end product. During decomposition of copper complex, first CuS is formed at ~300C which is converted into CuSO4 and finally CuO is formed. However, decomposition in helium atmosphere yields CuS. SEM studies of transition metal dithiocarbamates reveal needle shape crystalline phase at room temperature and formation of metal sulphide/oxide at higher temperatures. The activation energy varies in a large range of 33.8-188.3 kJ mol-1, being minimum for the Cu complex and maximum for the Zn complex possibly due to d 10 configuration. In the case of Ni, Zn and Cd complexes the order of reaction is two suggesting bimolecular process involving intermolecular rearrangement. However, in other cases it is a unimolecular process. Large negative values of ΔS # for all the complexes suggest that the decomposition process involves rearrangement.

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Abstract  

In order to assess the source of pollutants and the atmosphere quality in and around a thermal power plant, fugitive dust particulates from seven different locations and ambient air dust from six locations have been analyzed for 32 elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, W and Yb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The method involves the irradiation of samples and comparator standards in a thermal neutron flux range of 1012–1013 n·cm–2·s–1 in a nuclear reactor for 10 min and 1 day followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Wide differences have been observed in the mean elemental concentrations of Fe, Co, Br, Mn, As, P. Ba and Cu in fugitive and ambient dust particulates coliected from these different locations. Further, a comparison of the elemental contents of the dust particulates from the plant with environmental standards (Urban Particulate Matter, Coal Fly Ash, Vehicle Exhaust and Coal) show significantly lower or comparable amounts of toxic and pollutant elements in the environmental samples.

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Abstract  

A precise, sensitive and rapid analytical technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Zr and Hf in natural silicate matrices. The technique is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis and employs a rapid fusion dissolution of the sample and simultaneous precipitation of the Zr−Hf pair with p-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid in an acidic medium. The indicator radionuclides,95Zr and181Hf, are counted with a pair of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors and the95Zr activity is corrected for the contribution from U fission. The chemical yields of the radiochemical separation are based on Hf carrier, which quantitatively carries both Zr and Hf. The yield is determined by reactivation of the processed samples and standards with a252Cf isotopic neutron source and by counting the 18.6 sec half-life179mHf. The sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the procedure are demonstrated by replicate analyses of several standard rocks, meteorites and lunar samples which exhibit a wide range of Zr and Hf abundances.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for the determination of 27 elements (Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se Sr, Th, P, Ta, Tb, Zn and Zr) in 15 water samples collected from different sources (reservoirs, well, borewell, sewage tank, river, rain) in and around Nagpur city (central India) including doubly distilled and a sea water sample from Bombay. Sample residues after evaporation were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 1012–1013 n·cm–2·s–1 for 10 min, 1d and 1wk and counted using a HPGe detector and an 4k MCA at different intervals. Several environmental standards from NIST (USA), NIES (Japan) and USGS rock were also analysed for quality assurance. Wide variations in elemental concentrations have been observed in water samples from different sources. Most elemental concentrations in drinking water from various sources, are within ISI/WHO limits. Sea water showed very high concentrations of Ba, Cr, Co, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se and Zn. For doubly distilled and rain waters, however, very low elemental concentrations of Ba, Ce, Fe, Sc, Hg, Se, Sr and Th were observed.

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Abstract  

Radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of Fe and Zn in biological samples. The method involves reactor irradiation, dissolution in 3M HCl and solvent extraction followed by counting on a scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer. Iron was separated with aqueous cupferron and extracted into chloroform while Zn was extracted with 2-thenoyl trifluoroacetone (TTA) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Reaction conditions such as pH and the effect of solvents and various ions were studied using tracer activities. The methods have been employed for trace level determination of Fe and Zn in NBS, SRMs, Bowen's Kale, IAEA CRMs and other plant leaves.

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Abstract  

Short-term reactor irradiation followed by successive counting over long periods has been used for the nondestructive determination of more the 20 elements in geological and biological samples. The samples, along with USGS standards and NBS SRMs, were irradiated for 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, 1 h, 2.5 h, and 10 h, followed by counting on a Ge/Li/ gamma-ray spectrometer. The technique has been employed for the determination of several major, minor, and trace constituents in geological, biological and environmental samples.

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