The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.
The purpose of this study was to compare the energy content and macronutrients of forty main popular traditional and modern meals in both Jordan and Hungary with the national and international recommendations. The calculation of energy content and macronutrients were done on traditional and modern recipes by two diﬀerent softwares (ESHA and NutriComp). Neither Jordanian nor Hungarian foods met the recommended energy content (35% of daily energy intake, 8400 kJ for energy intake). The recipes of both nations are characterised by higher protein, fat, and salt contents than WHO recommendation, a lower ﬁbre content, and sugar content within the recommended limits. The fat energy ratio and saturated fatty acid content of Hungarian recipes are signiﬁcantly higher than WHO recommendation. In general, Jordanian meals were more likely to meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, neither Jordanian nor Hungarian traditional and popular meals meet the international nutritional recommendations for a healthy diet, however, the composition of the real dishes may diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the recipes depending on the available ingredients and chosen kitchen technology.
Caffeine content of 377 food samples obtained from the Hungarian market was measured by a validated HPLC technique. The highest caffeine levels were observed in different instant coffees (3954±2355 mg/100 g) and ground coffee beans (1634±389 mg/100 g). Significant amount of caffeine could be detected in energy drinks (119 mg in 100 ml at the highest end). The caffeine content of different coffee drinks varied between 40 and 203 mg/100 ml. Significant amount of caffeine could be measured in special instant coffees called 2in1 and 3in1 (120 mg per serving at the highest end), cacao powders (125 mg in 100 g), in chocolates (on average, 16.1 mg and 52.5 mg in 100 g milk and dark chocolate, respectively), breakfast cereals (between 5.7 and 15.8 mg per 100 g), and ice creams (1.7–24.8 mg in 100 g).
Fat content and fatty
acid composition were investigated in Musculus gluteus medius of pigs
from two different breeds: traditional Hungarian Mangalica and a crossbreed of
Hungarian Large White and Dutch Landrace. Animals of both varieties were
divided into two groups and were kept individually on control or experimental
mixtures of feeds. Experimental feed contained significantly higher amount of
linoleic and linolenic acid than the control one. Significantly higher fat
content was detected in meat of Mangalica pigs kept on both feed mixtures than
in those of crossbred. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was nearly the
same in the meat of both genotypes. More monounsaturated fatty acids were
detected in Mangalica meat than in crossbred ones expressed in percent of total
fatty acids and absolute amount, as well. As a result of experimental diet,
percentage and absolute amount of oleic acid decreased significantly in both
genotypes. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed as percent of total acids
were observed in the muscle of Mangalica than in those of crossbred ones.
Absolute amount and the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids
(especially linoleic and linolenic acids) increased significantly as a result
experimental diets. The ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids changed beneficially
in both genotypes consuming a diet containing 20% full-fat soy from 13.6:1 to
10.0:1 in Mangalica and from 15.4:1 to 10.3:1 in crossbred genotype. According
to present results, it has became clear that the fatty acid composition of the
meat of the traditional Hungarian Mangalica can be successfully modified by the
diet, and this manipulation can make the meat healthier in spite of its high