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Abstract  

The radiation dose of workers and patients resulting from inhaling radon and through the consumption of spring waters was examined in the hospital near the Héviz lake in Hungary. The radiation dose originating from radon was 2.15–3.95 mSv·y−1 concerning workers at the spa. The radiation dose originating from radon in the case of those regularly taking a bath was an average of 0.75 mSv·y−1. Due to the limited duration of treatments a bound effective dose of maximum 100 µSv·y−1 may originate from radon and inhaling radon, while a maximum of 1.4 µSv·y−1 may originate from ingestion of 222Rn, 226Ra, 234U and 238U radionuclides.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
F. Békés
,
K. Ács
,
Gy. Gell
,
Cs. Lantos
,
A-M. Kovács
,
Zs. Birinyi
, and
J. Pauk

Consumption of “gluten-containing” diet causes disease for a significant minority of people who consume foods derived from wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oat. The fact is, however, that in several types of diseases related to the consumption of “gluten-containing” cereals, the trigger compounds are not components of gluten. The current view of medical experts is that, excluding people suffering from celiac disease, the majority of individuals who are feeling better on the “wheat-free” or “gluten-free” diet could select a food containing much healthier, low level of fermentable oligosaccharides (often called as FODMAP). To satisfy the specific health related demands of certain consumer groups, the challenge is in front of cereal breeding to develop new, “healthier” germplasms, suitable to produce such products by the food industry. This report aims to give an overview of some aspects of recent developments in this booming area, (i) summarizing the up-to-date knowledge on cereals-related health disorders; (ii) reporting on the status of developing celiac-safe cereals, and finally (iii) highlighting the potential of developing “healthier” spelt-based cereal products through the progress in an ongoing spelt breeding program.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Soós
,
Sz. Kozits
,
Z. Kovács
,
E. Várvölgyi
,
D. SzöllőSi
, and
A. Fekete

Nowadays quality measurement is an important topic in food quality control. The electronic tongue (ET) can be a useful tool in this feld. The objective of our work is to demonstrate the application potential of ET for the evaluation of different coffee, wine and carrot juice samples and to compare the results with sensory attributes. ET was able to distinguish the different coffee samples. The Arabica concentration of the samples were predicted with close correlation (R2=0.98) and low error (RMSEP=3.16). The Arabica content of commercial samples were also determined. The ET measurement results of different wine samples showed a tendency similar to the increasing ‘acidic content’ determined by sensory evaluation. The closest correlation between ET and sensory evaluation was found with the ‘acidic taste’ (R2=0.87) and the lowest prediction error was observed with the prediction of ’fruit taste’ (RMSEP=6.11). Carrot juice samples were also distinguished by ET. Sensor SRS, developed for sour taste, gave the highest correlation (r=−0.99) with the sour taste of the carrot juice samples. The conclusion is that ET is a useful instrument in the feld of food quality control when appropriate statistical methods are applied.

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Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion. In the liver mitochondrial PL FA composition, margaric acid (C17:0) proportion decreased in the separated toxin treatments compared to the combined setting. Oleic acid (C18:1 n9) proportion was increased and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6) was decreased in the FB1-treated group, while docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n3) was decreased in the separated treatments. The total monounsaturation was significantly higher in the FB1 group’s mitochondrial PL FA profile. After 4 weeks, all toxin treatments decreased the blood plasma reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, and FB1 increased the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio. Both mycotoxins seem to cross the hepatocellular and the hepatic mitochondrial membrane, without drastic membrane disruption, as assessed from the PL FA composition, but inducing detectable lipid peroxidation.

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Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Gy. Kovács
,
L. Bartosiewicz
,
K. Éder
,
E. Gál
,
Zs. Miklós
,
M. Rózsás
,
A. J
, and
Cs. Zatykó

The paper is a short summary of the main archaeological outcomes of an interdisciplinary project in a section of the Drava river crossing the territory of Somogy county, in Hungary. One of the study areas is the vicinity of Berzence where medieval settlement patterns, land use and economy have been reconstructed on the basis of historical sources and an archaeological field survey. A comprehensive review of architectural history and material culture of the Ottoman Period stronghold in Barcs was the other area under investigation. Research there was based on written sources and the archaeological assemblage recovered from the palisaded fort. Zooarchaeological research at this site revealed some significant culture historical aspects of this stronghold. Underwater archaeological investigations carried out in the Drava river itself and aerial exploration of the study areas also supplied valuable archaeological results.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Somlai
,
G. Szeiler
,
P. Szabó
,
A. Várhegyi
,
S. Tokonami
,
T. Ishikawa
,
A. Sorimachi
,
S. Yoshinaga
, and
T. Kovács

Abstract  

In the last few decades attention has been given to improve workplace conditions, primarily to reduce the different health risks. In the air that accumulates in underground workplaces radon may constitute one of the health risks. The radon concentration in the show cave in Tapolca is especially high in summer months, with the annual average in the year 2005 being 7227 Bq/m3, in 2006 8591 Bq/m3. The radon concentration was found to be independent on the location of the measurement. Its value was rather similar for working hours and for the total period. The hours spent in the cave by the workers depend on the number of visitors. The radiation dose, estimated on the basis of personal dosimeters, is significant for those working there especially, employed during the whole year. Taking into consideration the actual working hours and the equilibrium factor, F = 0.4, given in the literature, it approaches and even exceeds the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. With a well organized work schedule, as well as the employment of outside workers during the summer period, the dose limit of 20 mSv/year can probably be maintained. However, on the basis of recent measurements, the actual equilibrium factor was determined to be F = 0.5, which in turn means a further 25% increase in the dose effect.

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We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light—dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light—dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p < 0.05. Interaction of lighting regimen and CMS was proved to be significant according to time spent in the light compartment and the average number of changes between the light and dark compartments. Results of our examination confirm that the changes of lighting conditions evocate anxiety more prominently than CMS. No significant differences were found between the results of the low rotating group and the control group, supposing that this schedule is the least harmful to health. Our results on the association between the use of lighting regimens and the level of CMS provide evidence that the fast rotating shift work schedule puts the heaviest load on the organism of animals.

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Physiology International
Authors:
E. Kovács
,
D. Pilecky
,
Z. Szakál-Tóth
,
A. Fekete-Győr
,
V.A. Gyarmathy
,
L. Gellér
,
B. Hauser
,
J. Gál
,
B. Merkely
, and
E. Zima

Abstract

Aim

We investigated the effect of age on post-cardiac arrest treatment outcomes in an elderly population, based on a local database and a systemic review of the literature.

Methods

Data were collected retrospectively from medical charts and reports. Sixty-one comatose patients, cooled to 32–34 °C for 24 h, were categorized into three groups: younger group (≤65 years), older group (66–75 years), and very old group (>75 years). Circumstances of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), patients' characteristics, post-resuscitation treatment, hemodynamic monitoring, neurologic outcome and survival were compared across age groups. Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and binary logistic regression (BLR) were applied. In addition, a literature search of PubMed/Medline database was performed to provide a background.

Results

Age was significantly associated with having a cardiac arrest on a monitor and a history of hypertension. No association was found between age and survival or neurologic outcome. Age did not affect hemodynamic parameter changes during target temperature management (TTM), except mean arterial pressure (MAP). Need of catecholamine administration was the highest among very old patients. During the literature review, seven papers were identified. Most studies had a retrospective design and investigated interventions and outcome, but lacked unified age categorization. All studies reported worse survival in the elderly, although old survivors showed a favorable neurologic outcome in most of the cases.

Conclusion

There is no evidence to support the limitation of post-cardiac arrest therapy in the aging population. Furthermore, additional prospective studies are needed to investigate the characteristics and outcome of post-cardiac arrest therapy in this patient group.

Open access
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Ádám
,
P. Bencze
,
J. Bór
,
B. Heilig
,
Á. Kis
,
A. Koppán
,
K. Kovács
,
I. Lemperger
,
F. Märcz
,
D. Martini
,
A. Novák
,
G. Sátori
,
S. Szalai
,
L. Szarka
,
J. Verő
,
V. Wesztergom
, and
B. Zieger

The paper describes research in geomagnetism and aeronomy carried out in the framework of a project organized by the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. It includes the development of the instrumentation of the Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory (geomagnetic measuring systems, ionosonde), moreover other instrumental and methodological developments, too. Observatory data are available in a database. Based on results of the Nagycenk and Tihany observatories and on data of permanent and temporal networks, long-term trends of different electromagnetic parameters were investigated. Thus geomagnetic activity was found secularly increasing, a decrease of the atmospheric electric potential gradient and a 11-year modulation of the winter/December attenuation of the geomagnetic pulsation activity were confirmed. Several possibilities (pulsations, whistlers, modelling) were used to improve knowledge about structure and parameters of the magnetosphere. Electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes were looked for. A significant increase of understanding was obtained in connection with Schumann resonances and electromagnetic transients caused by lightning. It was shown that see-coasts influence characteristically changes in ionospheric trends ( h m F2). When looking for the effect of the global climate changes in the subsurface electric resistivity, an example was discovered for the decrease of the resistivity due to infiltrating water from precipitation. Electromagnetic exploration of tectonically conditioned weak zones was continued, too.

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Physiology International
Authors:
J Fodor
,
A Gomba-Tóth
,
T Oláh
,
E Zádor
,
Zs Cs Tóth
,
I Ioannis
,
B Molnár
,
I Kovács
, and
L Csernoch

Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca2+ level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca2+ removal mechanisms. Ca2+ is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle. To investigate the role of these isoforms in ischemic skeletal muscle, biopsies from musculus biceps femoris of patients who underwent amputation due to atherosclerosis were examined. Samples were removed from the visibly healthy and hypoxia-affected tissue. Significantly increased SERCA1a expression was detected under the ischemic conditions (246 ± 69%; p < 0.05) compared with the healthy tissue. Furthermore, the ratio of SERCA1a-positive fibers was slightly increased (46 ± 4% in healthy tissue and 60 ± 5% in ischemic tissue; p > 0.05), whereas SERCA2a did not change. In addition, in primary cultures derived from hypoxia-affected tissue, the diameter and fusion index of myotubes were significantly increased (30 ± 1.6 µm vs. 41 ± 2.4 µm and 31 ± 4% vs. 45 ± 3%; p < 0.05). We propose that the increased SERCA1a expression indicates the existence and location of compensating mechanisms in ischemic muscle.

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