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Benthic diatom investigations of some Hungarian streams have been carried out in order to find reference sites in assistance to the ecological quality analysis of the different river types according to the Hungarian river typology. On the basis of the coevaluation of biological and chemical parameters, among the investigated streams, some part of Kemence stream seems to be the appropriate reference site for the classification of the highland, siliceous rivers of Hungary. However, further invastigations are needed for the selection of reference sites for the other types of Hungarian river typology. This is the most difficult in the case of lowland rivers, which are exposed to more severe anthropogenic impacts. Important is the question which biological parameters should be investigated and considered when assessing the ecological condition of our waters. In the United States, e.g. the assessment of the relative abundance of Achnanthidium minutissimum is quite widespread (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), the extent of which indicates the level of disturbance. The use of this method is hampered, on one hand, by the fact that A. minutissimum is an early coloniser species which means that if we do not take samples from mature periphyton, we might find it dominant simply because of that, and, on the other hand, that distinguishing between the species varieties is not always unambiguous under light microscope because of its small size, and these can have different ecological needs. It is also recommended to calculate species richness, diversity and evenness (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), but based on our investigations these parameters are not in correlation with water quality. Investigation of other diatom features such as tolerance and sensitivity, some autecological parameters (as it was applied and recommended by Fore and Grafe 2002 for investigating the reaction of diatom associations to anthropogenic disturbances) might also be useful in completing the water quality analysis of rivers, however, these methods need further investigations. Some of the indices (EPI-D, IPS, IBD) calculated with the software Omnidia are suitable for the classification of our rivers, but the investigation of more rivers, flowing through different types of stone are necessary to choose the appropriate indices. The reason for this is that the different indices work with a different register of species and obviously those indices will prove to be suitable the species register of which shows the highest similarity to the diatom associations of the certain water type.

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In the course of our work we aimed to develop a product from gluten-free raw materials (millet, sorghum and buckwheat) that is similar to beer made of barley malt but is consumable by coeliacs. Our measurements were started by qualification of cereal/pseudo-cereal grains. Next malts were made of them with different steeping, germination and kilning parameters, and their most important quality characteristics were determined. Qualification of grains were done by grading, determination of thousand-kernel and hectolitre weight, and protein content, while malts were examined with congress mashing, Hartong mashing and lauter test, as well. Gelatinization point of the starch found in grains and malts were determined by Brabender amyloviscograph which helped to set the temperature of β-amylase rest in future mashings. The gelatinization points were higher in our samples, than in the barley’s starch.Optimization of mashing was continued with malts that fulfilled requirements needed for brewing. Mashing programs were written for each raw material with the help of our laboratory mashing equipment, and resulting worts were analysed (for extract content), then carbohydrate content was measured by HPLC, α-amylase activity by Phadebas test, and free α-amino nitrogen (FAN) content by the ninhydrin method. Those worts were selected for further fermentation tests that had the highest extract and FAN content, best filtration time and appropriate sensory characteristics. Optimal malting temperatures and time periods, aeration and water uptake were determined, and then the duration and temperature of protein and enzyme rests of mashing were set.The malting process that proved to be the most suitable for brewing requirements (high extract content, good lautering characteristics, high FAN content) has the following parameters: steeping with 25 °C water for 18 h with aeration in every 5 h; germination at 15 °C for 84 h; kilning at 50 °C for 48 h.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: D. Polgári, B. Kalapos, V. Tisza, L. Kovács, B. Kerti, L. Heszky, and E. Kiss

The aim of this study was to characterize a gene associated with ripening in strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. Differently expressed transcripts of candidate genes functioning in fruit development and ripening were identified from strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in four ripening stages using the cDNA-AFLP method. The cDNA fragment designated C11M32M003 was selected from the putative ripening-related genes for further analysis. This transcript accumulated in the green receptacle, and the achene, but gene expression decreased in both tissues in parallel with the progress of ripening (Balogh, 2006). In silico analysis revealed that both the cDNA-AFLP fragment (C11M32M003) and the full-length cDNA AY695666 showed over 60% homology at the nucleotide level with two gene groups found in various plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana . One of the candidate groups consisted of NITRILASE sequences thought to be related to auxin biosynthesis. As an alternative, a lesser known gene group named SPIRAL was suggested. The results of the detailed bioinformatic comparisons presented in this paper prove that the strawberry sequence analysed belongs to the SPIRAL gene family.

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Abstract  

It is demonstrated that combined PIXE and PIGE measurements are suitable for the accurate determination of the elemental concentration of glass samples. Borosilicate glasses used as high voltage insulators in Van de Graaff accelerators and tested for the relevant physical properties have been analyzed. A correlation between concentrations and physical properties has been found, supporting the additivity rule.

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Abstract

In recent years, post mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is increasingly applied for forensic and pathologic examination. However, classical dissection remains dominant in everyday practice. Lack of quantifiable data on the coronary system has become a disadvantageous attribute of traditional autopsy. Therefore, post mortem MSCT angiography was performed in 80 ex corpo hearts with the aim of improving the accuracy and quantitative documentation of pathologic and forensic diagnoses of coronary artery disease (CAD). Hearts were perfused by introducing a new oily or synthetic resin, or using both contrast materials successively. Then the perfused organs were processed for imaging. Detailed angiographic analysis enabled us to localize, map and quantify coronary calcifications, stenoses, and to characterize the types of atherosclerotic plaques. Significant early or late complications of widely used percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and coronary bypass surgery (CABS) could be revealed using CT analysis. Furthermore, by using our oily contrast material and CT imaging, we could identify and visualize the clinically important small caliber nodal arteries (diameter 0.4–2.0 mm). The present work suggests that post mortem CT angiography and post-processing of the data may improve the quality of pathologic and forensic diagnosis. Our collection of coronary casts including digital data are available for further analysis.

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors: Tamás Földes, Gizella B. Árgyelán, Péter Bogner, Imre Repa, Balázs Kiss, and Kinga Hips

This paper summarizes the benefits of non-destructive core measurements by medical Computer Tomograph (CT) in integrated 3D reservoir characterization.  A direct relationship exists between CT measurements and petrography, conventional petrophysical analysis and well logs. Based on CT measurements the internal structure of core samples, and the geometry of framework constituents, porosity type and pore size distribution, as well as fracturing, can be described. There is a close connection between distribution of the Hounsfield Unit of CT measurements and pore size distribution detected by conventional petrophysical analysis. Calculation of effective porosity from petroleum saturation experiments provides a new way to determine the porosity of the whole core sample. Beside the description of reservoir parameters, the results of CT measurements can be extended over the surrounding area of the well. By matching the cylinder maps of CT to FMI images and other well logs the original position of the core samples can be reconstructed. Applying high-tech CT measurements in 3D reservoir characterization and modeling of fluid migration significantly reduces the exploration and production risks.

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The hypopi of the species Sancassania chelone Oudemans, 1916 were collected from four pest beetle species, namely Melolontha melolontha (Linnaeus, 1758); Melolontha hippocastani Fabricius, 1801; Holochelus aequinoctialis (Herbst, 1790) and Tropinota hirta Poda, 1761. The infestation rate was the highest in H. aequinoctialis (80%), while it was 50%, 28% and 13% in M. hippocastani, M. melolontha and T. hirta, respectively. The majority of the mites were found on wings in case of the two Melolontha species, in contrary, the mites were present on the abdomen of the H. aequinoctialis and T. hirta. Melolontha hippocastani Fabricius, 1801; Holochelus aequinoctialis (Herbst, 1790) and Tropinota hirta (Poda, 1761) are new host species of S. chelone.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Viruses caused severe yield losses of field cucumber in Hungary last years. Field surveys have been carried out on field cucumber to evaluate virus infection in the region of Gyor-Moson-Sopron county. Virus infection was determined on the basis of symptoms, biotest and with DAS-ELISA serological method for the presence of 15 viruses. The virus vector aphid flight was monitored by Moericke yellow water pan. On the basis of field surveys 100% virus infection has been observed in cucum­ber fields. Virus symptoms were various, depending on varieties, environ­men­tal factors, viruses and strains. Out of the viruses investigated only three [Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) (DTL serotype); Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus (WMV-2)] have been occurred on cucumber samples. Biological tests confirm­ed the results of DAS-ELISA. There was much difference, regarding the frequency of viruses. ZYMV was dominant in 1998, while CMV was dominant in 1999. The proportion of the complex infection was very high. Till now, besides CMV other viruses cannot be detected from weeds in cucumber ecosystems. The peak of aphid flight was in the middle of June and later a secondary peak was observed at the beginning of July, which coincided with the appearance of the first virus symptoms. Regarding, that cucumber production occurs in fields at the same place year by year, soil borne virus vectors may play important role in virus infection. To reduce virus infection we can suggest using of light summer oils, which prevents virus transmission by aphids. It is concluded that team work of virologists, pathologists, growers, technologists and the breeders is necessary to solve virus problems of field cucumber in Hungary.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: G. Paulovits, Nóra Kováts, A. Ács, Á. Ferincz, Anikó Kovács, B. Kakasi, Sz. Nagy, and Gy. Kiss

The main function of the Kis-Balaton Water Protection System is to retain nutrients and total suspended solids, thus protecting the water quality of Lake Balaton. In this paper, the toxic nature of the sediment in the 2nd reservoir of the KBWPS has been characterised, using a battery of tests: Vibrio fischeri acute bioassay on whole sediment samples, and V. fischeri bioassay on pore water and elutriate samples. The latest version of the V. fischeri bioluminescence inhibition was applied, the Flash assay which uses a kinetic mode and is able to detect the toxicity of solid, turbid/coloured samples. Whole sediment toxicity showed a clear spatial distribution of toxicity, in parallel with elutriate toxicity. However, no pore water toxicity was detected, leading to the conclusion that contaminants are not water soluble.

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The quasispecies nature of three animal pathogenic RNA viruses of field origin was examined by testing variants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) originating from geographically different areas, feline coronavirus (FCoV) detected from the same animal by successive sampling, and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) originating from successive outbreaks in the same geographic area. Clinical samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ensuing single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) assay. By the combination of these methods even subtle differences could be detected among the amplified fragments of the same virus species of different origin. FCoV proved to comprise the most and CSFV the less heterogeneous virus quasispecies. The results show that the combination of RT-PCR and SSCP provides novel and highly sensitive means for the characterisation of RNA viruses, with special regard to genome composition, evolution, features of pathogenicity and molecular epizootiology.

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