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Investigations of the thermal stability of detonating fuse containing 10 g pentaerythrol tetranitrate (PETN) revealed that the cord burnt under unconfinement at 403 K. Under confinement in a steel pipe or copper tube there was a partial detonation at 403 K. In order to characterize the thermal stability of PETN and pyrotechnic composition used in fuse head of electric detonators differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used.

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Abstract  

Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids viz. glycine (C2H5NO2), l-Serine (C3H7NO3), l-Theronine (C4H9NO3), l-Proline (C5H9NO2), l-Valine (C5H11NO2) and l-Phenylalanine (C9H11NO2) in aqueous solutions have been determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry setup. Precisely measured densities of these solutions were used for the determination of these coefficients which varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm3) of the solutions. Molar extinction coefficients of amino acids were then obtained at these energies and were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical results. In addition, total interaction cross sections of amino acids in aqueous solutions were also calculated.

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Reaction between two oxides leading to the formation of a new compound through a change in weight can be studied by TG methods. However, for catalyst preparations, in most of the cases the starting materials are not oxides. The more common methods of coprecipitation or kneading of the precipitated oxides are employed. In such cases the TG and DTG curve of the composites are of a complex nature for several possible reasons including the formation of new compounds. The interpretation of the conventional DTG curve of such a sample and identification of temperature regions for any new thermal activity thus presents problems. For such studies the use of a derived derivative thermogravimetric curve is suggested as described in this paper. This curve indicates the differences between the experimental thermal behaviour of the composite vis-a-vis theoretical thermal behaviour of the composite computed from the thermal behaviour of its constituents. The regions of a new thermal activity can be readily located and interpretated. Two systems are described, MgO-Cr2O3 and MgO-Fe2O3.

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The hydrated oxides which are formed by the addition of ammonium bi-carbonate to a solution of Zn(NO3)2 and Fe(NO3)3, and drying the precipitates at 110° are zinc hydroxy carbonate(I) and iron(III) oxide gel(II), respectively. A new, derived derivative thermogravimetric curve along with conventional DTA and DTG methods have been used to study the reaction between (I) and (II) in two components system.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
S. Sareen
,
R. Munjal
,
N. Singh
,
B. Singh
,
R. Verma
,
B. Meena
,
J. Shoran
,
A. Sarial
, and
S. Singh

Terminal heat, which is referred as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production. Current estimates indicate that wheat crop grown on around 13.5mha in India is affected by heat stress. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate germplasm for heat tolerance and identify and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. The advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centers were evaluated across 7 locations representing varied agroclimatic zones during 2007–08 and 2008–09 to study their adaptability for heat stress and non-stress environments. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis for G × E interactions revealed differences amongst locations to phenology and grain yield. Genotype RAJ 4083 developed for cultivation under late sown conditions in peninsular zone was also found adaptable to timely sown conditions. Similarly, HD 2733 a cultivar of NEPZ timely sown conditions and PBW 574 an advanced breeding line of NWPZ late sown conditions was found adapted to Peninsular zone. The cultivar RAJ 3765 showed specific adaptability to Pantnagar in NWPZ. Genotype NW 3069 developed for NEPZ timely sown conditions have shown adaptability to number of locations; timely sown conditions at Karnal and Hisar in NWPZ and Niphad in PZ. Likewise, WH 1022 developed for NEPZ late sown conditions exhibited specific adaptability to all timely sown locations in NWPZ.

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A set of 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with the parents and a popular wheat variety in India were grown for two consecutive years at three locations belonging to the two major wheat growing zones of India and evaluated for four grain quality traits. Rare recombinants with high trait value appeared for protein content (PC), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), sedimentation value (SV), and kernel hardness (KH). The magnitude of environmental effects was more pronounced than genotypic effects and genotype-environment interaction (GEI). The cumulative contribution of environment and GEI components to the total variance was highest in the expression of PC followed by TKW, SV, and KH. The top five percent (14 RILs) of genotypes with high trait value were subjected to Eberhart and Russell (1966) (ER), genotype and genotype-environment (GGE) and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability models. Five RILs were identified as stable in all the three stability models. RIL61 with 38.8%, RIL101 with 8.9%, RIL226 with 26.1% superiority over check variety were the most stable genotypes in all the three stability models for PC, TKW and KH, respectively. RIL113 was found to be stable genotype in ER and GGE models, whereas, RIL231 was the most stable genotype in AMMI and GGE models in the expression of SV. These common stable genotypes with high trait value identified through ER, AMMI and GGE models could be potential donors in active breeding programs to develop high yielding wheat varieties with improved PC, TKW, SV and KH.

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Some transition metal nitrate complexes with hexamethylenetetramine

Part LV. Preparation, X-ray crystallography and thermal decomposition

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. Singh
,
B. Baranwal
,
I. Kapoor
,
D. Kumar
,
C. Singh
, and
R. Fröhlich

Abstract  

Three hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) metal nitrate complexes such as [M(H2O)4(H2O-HMTA)2](NO3)·4H2O (where M=Co, Ni and Zn) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their thermal decomposition have been studied by using dynamic, isothermal thermogravimery (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Kinetics of thermal decomposition was undertaken by applying model-fitting as well as isoconversional methods. The possible pathways of thermolysis have also been proposed. Ignition delay measurements have been carried out to investigate the response of these complexes under condition of rapid heating.

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A study was conducted during 2008–2010, to estimate heterosis for yield component traits and protein content in bread wheat under normal and heat-stress environment by utilizing a set of 45 half diallel cross combinations, involving 10 diverse parents. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for the two environements, whereas differences over the years were non-significant for all the traits. The pooled data over the years, exhibited highly significant differences for all the traits under both normal and heat-stress environments. The number of tillers/plant exhibited maximum degree of standard heterosis under normal and heat-stress environment (with value of 12.62% and 53.75%), respectively. In general, spike length (16.02%) and number of grains/spike (52.10%), showed higher magnitude of standard heterosis under normal environment than heat-stress environment, whereas number of tillers/plant (53.75%) and gain filling duration (43.68%) showed higher standard heterosis in heat-stress environment than the normal one. For grain yield/plant, 1000-grain weight and protein content, the number of cross combination showing standard heterosis were almost same in both the environments. The ten crosses, out of forty-five crosses, namely HD 2733/WH 542; PBW 343/UP 2425; HD 2687/PBW 343; PBW 343/UP 2382; PBW 343/HD 2285; WH 542/UP 2425; PBW 343/PBW 226; UP 2382/HUW 468; PBW 343/WH 542 and PBW 226/HD 2285 can be used to select transgressive segregants for normal as well warmer wheat growing areas. These ten combinations can be used by involving, the trait grain filling duration, tillers per plant, spike length, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight to improve grain yield for warmer areas. In all 45 cross combinations, six cross combinations were identified for better per se performance for grain yield as well as protein content under heat-stress environment. These combinations may thus be used for developing superior genotypes through fixation of heterosis are also supported by high SCA. Besides, results of present study also revealed ample scope for developing transgressive segregants involving some of these parents to develop high yielding genotypes in wheat suitable for heat stress environments.

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DTA techniques were employed to study the thermal and structural characteristics of hydrated aluminium oxides and aluminous clays of the Pipra pelitic rocks from district Sidhi, India. Detailed microscopic investigations, X-ray and chemical analyses reveal that these clays were derived by the localized weathering of arkosic metasediments. The chemical and normative behaviours have confirmed their formation by the isochemical metamorphism of arkose, aided by a little granitization and followed by minor retrogression. A tentative correlation between the thermal and structural changes of these oxides and clay minerals at various transition temperatures has nicely displayed the presence of kaolinite, diaspore and gibbsite. The exothermic curves of kaolinite confirm the recrystallization. The presence of kaolinite in the clay fractions indicates the detrital origin.

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The thermal behaviours of polystyrene (PS), polymethylacrylate (PMA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polystyrene-co-methylacrylate [P(S: MA)](alternate and random), polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile [P(S: AN)] (alternate) and a terpolymer of styrene, methylacrylate and acrylonitrile [P(S: MA: AN)] are discussed on the basis of non-isothermal thermogravimetric studies. The thermal stabilities of the copolymers have been found to be intermediate between of those of the individual homopolymers. The stability of the [P(S: AN)] copolymer is higher than those of the individual homopolymers. The activation energy values are also in accordance with the thermal behaviours of these polymers.

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