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Abstract  

PHB [poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)], post-consumer soft-drink bottles poly (ethylene terephthalate) PET (herein named PET-R) and PHBPET-R (blends of PHB and PET-R in several compositions) samples were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) in order to verify their thermal properties and porosity according to amounts of PET-R added the blends. The DSC curve showed that the solvents used to solve the polymer mixture cause changes in the thermal behavior of PET-R films and in PHBPET-R blends. SEM studies of the PHBPET-R blends show that with a gradual mass increase of PET-R, there are gradual increases in the porosity of the films.

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Abstract  

The non-isothermal data given by TG curves for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) were studied in order to obtain a consistent kinetic model that better represents the PHB thermal decomposition. Thus, data obtained from the dynamic TG curves were suitably managed in order to obtain the Arrhenius kinetic parameter E according to the isoconversional F-W-O method. Once the E parameters is found, a suitable logA and kinetic model (f(α)) could be calculated. Hence, the kinetic triplet (E±SD, logA±SD and f(α)) obtained for the thermal decomposition of PHB under non-isothermal conditions was E=152±4 kJ mol−1, logA=14.1±0.2 s−1 for the kinetic model, and the autocatalytic model function was: f(α)=αm(1−α)n0.42(1−α)0.56.

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Titanium(IV)–EDTA complex

Kinetics of thermal decomposition by non-isothermal procedures

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Luciana Guinesi, C. Ribeiro, Marisa Crespi, A. Santos, and Marisa Capela

Abstract  

This work aims the evaluation of the kinetic triplets corresponding to the two successive steps of thermal decomposition of Ti(IV)–ethylenediaminetetraacetate complex. Applying the isoconversional Wall–Flynn–Ozawa method on the DSC curves, average activation energy: E=172.49.7 and 205.312.8 kJ mol–1, and pre-exponential factor: logA=16.380.84 and 18.961.21 min–1 at 95% confidence interval could be obtained, regarding the partial formation of anhydride and subsequent thermal decomposition of uncoordinated carboxylate groups, respectively. From E and logA values, Dollimore and Mlek methods could be applied suggesting PT (Prout–Tompkins) and R3 (contracting volume) as the kinetic model to the partial formation of anhydride and thermal decomposition of the carboxylate groups, respectively.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: H. Barud, C. Ribeiro, Marisa Crespi, M. Martines, J. Dexpert-Ghys, R. Marques, Y. Messaddeq, and S. Ribeiro

Abstract  

Cellulose–phosphate composite membranes have been prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes (BC) and sodium polyphosphate solution. The structure and thermal behavior of the new composites were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). From XRD analyses the Iα and Iβ cellulose crystalline phases were identified together with crystalline sodium phosphate that covers the cellulose microfibrils as revealed by SEM. 31P NMR spectra show peaks assigned to Q0 and Q1 phosphate structures to be compared to the Q2 units that characterize the precursor polyphosphate. Glass transition temperature, T g, obtained from TMA curves and thermal stability obtained from TG and DSC measurements, were observed to be dependent on the phosphate content.

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Abstract  

Total particulate matter (TPM) was passively collected inside two classrooms of each of five elementary schools in Lisbon, Portugal. TPM was collected in polycarbonate filters with a 47 mm diameter, placed inside of uncovered plastic petri dishes. The sampling period was from 19 May to 22 June 2009 (35 days exposure) and the collected TPM masses varied between 0.2 mg and 0.8 mg. The major elements were Ca, Fe, Na, K, and Zn at μg level, while others were at ng level. Pearson′s correlation coefficients above 0.75 (a high degree of correlation) were found between several elements. Soil-related, traffic soil re-suspension and anthropogenic emission sources could be identified. Blackboard chalk was also identified through Ca large presence. Some of the determined chemical elements are potential carcinogenic. Quality control of the results showed good agreement as confirmed by the application of u-score test.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: C. Ribeiro, W. de Souza, Marisa Crespi, J. Gomes Neto, and F. Fertonani

Abstract  

Tungsten carbide, WC, has shown dissimilar thermal behavior when it is heated on changeable heating rate and flow of oxidant atmosphere. The oxidation of WC to WO3 tends to be in a single and slow kinetic step on slow heating rate and/or low flux of air. Kinetic parameters, on non-isothermal condition, could be evaluated to the oxidation of WC to heating rate below 15°C min−1 or low flow of air (10 mL min−1). The reaction is governed by nucleation and growth at 5 to 10°C min−1 then the tendency is to be autocatalytic, JMA and SB, respectively.

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Abstract

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, has been structurally modified with maleic anhydride, MA, in the presence of triethylamine, TEA. Glass transition, melting, and crystallization temperature, obtained from DSC curves, and thermal degradation temperatures obtained from TG ones, were employed to evaluate the influence of the MA proportion on the modification in the PHB chain. According to the results, most of chain modification reactions are the 80/20 and 90/10 proportions. Observations suggest that most chain modification reactions occur when the ratio of PHB/MA is 80/20 or 90/10. This suggests that modifications of PHB in the presence of MA involve main chain scission.

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Abstract

The composting process using sugarcane bagasse, animal manure, and urea as source of organic matter, microorganism, and nitrogen, respectively, were evaluated regarding the thermal behavior considering the maturation period: 0 (raw), 15, 22, 30, and 60 days. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis curves were obtained in a synthetic air atmosphere and heating rate of 10 °C min−1 in the range of 30–600 °C. The raw compost showed 80% organic matter, which was reduced up to 58% to 60 days compost. Two main mass losses were verified, corresponding to characteristics exothermic peak in differential thermal analysis curves depending on the maturation period. The variation in organic composition was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verifying the structures (lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses) changes with composting process, and the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify substance soluble in hexane.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. C. A. Amaral, M. S. Crespi, C. A. Ribeiro, M. Y. Hikosaka, L. S. Guinesi, and A. F. Santos
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