Authors:T. Kishikawa, S. Noguchi, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, A. Nakamura, and H. Sawahata
This paper describes effect of base profile for precise measurement of photon energy in prompt -ray analysis (PGA). The base profile has been examined in the vicinity of full energy (FE), single escape and double escape peaks. Major origins of step-wise base profiles are single and double escape events for triple photon annihilation and single and double Compton escape events for double photon annihilation in the detector, in addition to general events for the FE peak. A formula has been proposed for the quantitative characterization of the base profile.
Authors:S. Miyamoto, M. Sutoh, A. Shiomoto, S. Yamazaki, K. Nishimura, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and M. Hoshi
Boron concentration of plasma, feces, urine and body tissues from sheep fed with borated water (100 mg B/l) and tap water were determined by neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis to elucidate boron metabolism. The B level in plasma and urine increased rapidly and the B content of feces increased greatly. The B concentrations in body tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, thyroid and muscle) of B dosed sheep were ten times higher than those of tap water administered sheep.
Authors:Y. Sakai, K. Ohshita, M. Kubo, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, H. Sawahata, Y. Ito, and S. Iwama
Iron and boron species in the products of thermit reaction of aluminum, iron oxide, and boron oxide were characterized by
Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and prompt γ-ray analysis. It was revealed that iron and boron products of the
thermit reaction are composed of intermetallic compounds with aluminum.
Authors:A. Kuno, K. Sampei, M. Matsuo, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and H. Sawahata
Neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been applied to the
sediments collected from the Yasaka River estuary in Oita Prefecture, Japan. The vertical distribution of 33 elements in the
sediments has been determined and compared with that in more polluted estuarine sediments. While the S content increased with
increasing depth because of a sulphide accumulation under reducing condition, the increase in sulphide-forming elements such
as Ag, Cd, Co and Zn was not observed in the deeper section of the Yasaka River estuarine sediments.
Authors:M. Blaauw, I. Degenaar, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and J. de Goeij
A method is proposed for the implementation of large-sample prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (LS-PGNAA). The method
was tested with four different sample materials at the thermal PGNAA facility at JAERI, Japan. The macroscopic scattering
cross section (Σs) and absorption cross section (Σa) of the samples were determined by monitoring the neutron flux in four positions just outside the sample container. With
the Σs and Σa determined, the spatial neutron density distribution [n(r)] inside the sample material was derived. Taking n(r) and the gamma-ray self-absorption into account simultaneously, the effective geometric gamma-ray detection efficiency for
large samples as a function of gamma-ray energy was calculated. Taking silicon as test element, the concentrations found agreed
to within 7% with the known concentrations in the four sample materials examined, both when using relative standardization
and with absolute standardization.
Authors:A. Kuno, M. Matsuo, B. Takano, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and H. Sawahata
Neutron induced prompt -ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been applied to the sediments collected from the Tama River estuary in Tokyo, Japan. The vertical distribution of 24 elements in the sediments was determined and the factors goveming the vertical profiles have been discussed. Major elements are distributed depending on weathering that proceeds much with increasing depth. Cadmium is highly concentrated in the deeper layer where sulphate ion is reduced to hydrogen sulphide. The distribution of several rare earth elements is also presented
Authors:T. Sano, T. Fukuoka, T. Hasenaka, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and H. Sawahata
An accurate and efficient analytical method using neutron-induced prompt γ-ray was developed for the determination of boron
contents in volcanic rocks. We corrected the effect of sample geometry and flux fluctuation by using silicon as an internal
standard. However, we found that the slopes of the calibration line vary among volcanic samples with different matrix. Because
the increase of boron activity correlates positively with γ-ray count rate of hydrogen (water), we call this as the hydrogen
effect. The hydrogen effect was confirmed by our experiment in which the boron activities showed systematic increase with
the amount of added hydrogen (water). Most volcanic rocks, however, contain little water (<2 wt.%) to show this effect. We
determined boron contents in various volcanic rocks in order to confirm the validity of the procedure that we established.
The analyzed boron contents agreed well with the previous reported values. For efficient PGA of boron in volcanic rocks, we
recommend JB-2 (GSJ standard rock) as a single geochemical standard, because of its high boron content (31.2 ppm).
Authors:C. Yonezawa, M. Magara, H. Sawahata, M. Hoshi, Y. Ito, and E. Tachikawa
A permanent and stand-alone neutron-induced prompt -ray analysis (PGA) system, usable at both cold and thermal neutron beam guides of JRR-3M has been constructed. The characteristics of the system, including neutron beam and -ray spectrometer were measured. Owing to the absence of fast neutrons and the low -ray background, analytical sensitivities and detection limits better than those in other PGA systems have been achieved. Analytical results of ten elements in Standard Reference Material of Coal Fly Ash agreed well with those obtained by other methods. Isotopic analysis of Ni and its application to accurate and precise determination of Ni by stable isotope dilution method were performed.
Authors:Sk. Latif, Y. Oura, M. Ebihara, G. Kallemeyn, H. Nakahara, C. Yonezawa, T. Matsue, and H. Sawahata
Neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) was applied to seven meteorite samples (Allende, Zagami, Acfer 209, ALH77005,
ALH84001, EET79001 and Neagari). Samples were irradiated in both the thermal neutron and the cold neutron guided beams of
JRR-3M at JAERI. Multiple samples of an Allende standard powder were analyzed for Si using two different methods: (1) the
comparison method, using a Si standard, and (2) the mono-standard method, using Fe as an internal reference element. The Si
concentrations determined by these two methods are in good agreement with literature values. The analytical sensitivity for
Si using the cold neutron guided beam is∼14.3× higher than that for the thermal neutron guided beam. Other elements determined
(B, Ca, Ti and S) also showed higher sensitivities using the cold neutron beam. The other meteorites studied showed some anomalous
B and S values likely due to the effects of terrestrial weathering/contamination.
Authors:H. Nakahara, Y. Oura, K. Sueki, M. Ebihara, W. Sato, Sk. Latif, T. Tomizawa, S. Enomoto, C. Yonezawa, and Y. Ito
An internal monostandard method for PGAA is proposed for completely non-destructive analysis of elements in bulky samples by the use of a neutron beam guided out from the reactor. The method is essentially the same as the k0 method except that it corrects for the change of relative -ray counting efficiencies caused by the absorption and scattering of neutrons and absorption of -rays within the sample. Some examples of applications to archaeological samples of earthen wares, bronze mirrors, and to voluminous meteorite samples are demonstrated, and its future application to the in-situ studies of distribution and metabolism of a certain elements in animals is also explained.