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The quest for formalism in law

Ideals of systemicity and axiomatisability between utopianism and heuristic assertion

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: Csaba Varga

After the relationship between form and content in art and law is surveyed and the axiomatic approach to systemicity in both philosophy and law of both the classic and modern ages is scrutinised, the want of axiomatisability-in presence of correlations between axiomatism and law notwithstanding-is established. The very nucleus of any axiomatic system is that in some set of building blocks there are few foundation stones from which one given overall building can be built up in one given form and with the inherent necessity of that the operation, in the security of reaching the same end result, can be repeated by any actor at any future time. However, the relationship amongst the constituents of legal systems is not such as to allow to make up their edifice in exclusively one form, only if the procedure is defined and some constituents as foundation stones are designated. For legal systems are truly dynamic systems thoroughly built on substantive interconnections. Therefore they resist- albeit idealise-axiomatisation. In consequence, exclusively the heuristic value of the axiomatic ideal can be fully implemented and scholarly realised in the domain of law.

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Legal theorising

An unrecognised need for practicing the European law

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: Csaba Varga

As a legal philosophical overview of the operation of European law, the paper aims at describing the mentality working in it by also answering the query whether the European law itself is to be regarded as the extension of some domestic laws or it offers quite a new and sui generis structure built upon all member states’ laws. In either option, the connection between the European law and the composing national laws recalls the embodiment of post modern clichés, as the former’s actual working (both purposefully and through its by-effects) exerts a destructive impact upon the bounds once erected by the latter’s anchorage in the traditions of legal positivism. In addition, the excellence in efficacious operation of the European law is achieved by transposing the control on its central enactments to autonomous implementation and jurisdiction by its member nations. According to the conclusions of the paper, (1) the (post) positivism as the traditional domestic juristic outlook is inappropriate to any adequate investigation of the reality of European law. As part of the global post modernism itself, the European law stems from a kind of artificial reality construction (as the attempted materialisation of its own virtuality), which is from the outset freed from the captivity of both historical particularities and human experience, i.e., of anything concretely given hic et nunc. At the same time, (2) by its operation the European law dynamises large structures, through which it makes to move that what is chaos itself. For it is the reconstructive human intent solely that may try to arrange its outcome according to some ideal of order posteriorly-without, however, the operation itself (forming its construct and assuring its daily management) striving for anything of order (or ordered state and systemicity). This is the way in which the European law can be an adequate reflection upon the (macro) economic basis to which it forms the superstructure. Accordingly, (3) the whole construct is frameworked (i.e., integrated into one working unit and also mobilised) by an artificially animated dynamism. Concludingly, no national interest can be asserted in it without successful national self-positioning ready to launch it.

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A scale of globalisation is witnessed in the present case study as exemplified by (1) the transformation of the role of precedents; (2) the multicultural and multifactorial search for a common solution instead of any law-based administration of justice; (3) dissolving definition by and conclusion from the law in the name of a legal socio-positivist approach; accompanied with (4) some new prerogatives acquired by courts through a) unfolding statutory provisions through principles in judicial actualisation, (b) constitutionalisation of issues, as well as c) the Supreme Court imposing upon the nation as its supreme moral authority. In both cases, the main point is to re-consider the law's normative material in a way somewhat released from nationally positivated self-restriction when searching for a kind of trans-national cultural community. By gradually eliminating the law's substantivity, legal self-identity is mostly preserved in a rather procedural sense.

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Since the waning of the world concept offered by classical physics, law is seen as embodied less by material objects any longer than in a specific way of thinking. Consequently, the normativist perspective of legal positivism is also getting replaced by the comprehension of law in context of culture and tradition.In its own context, any of the terms of 'system', 'family' or 'culture' can be applied independently from each other but it is to be noted that 'tradition' is at the same time both a part and a given path of culture. In legal thought, concrete and generalising (abstract) ways of thinking are equally recoursed to, just as types which search for a solution either in the case's terms in its entirety or in the exclusive bounds of the given normative conceptual framework. It is only Western law that has become differentiated out of the rest, when individualism advanced and thinking in term of subjective rights grew into a dominant pattern, contrasted to our primitive (albeit surviving) approach to law which also expects, in addition to external conformity, the realisation of the law's internal ethos based on own initiative. English law, however, has revealed its face only gradually, as it has factual decisions made through an only-processually-arranged laic (jury) process while it has bound the declaration of what the law is to such facts of the cases among which no logical relationship can be established. In Civil Law, the treatment of adjudication as argumentation, and in Common Law, as practical reasoning, led the judicial process into a sphere only smoothly controllable by logic. Jewish and Islamic laws accept contradictory arguments from the outset. As to Indian and Far-Eastern cultures, they reject even the underlying questionto be raised. This way, in legal problem-solving the assessment of the merits of the caseandthe recourse to a reductive procedure can complement one another on the basis of some compromise. Institutionalisation itself is, as it channels the legal problem-solving to givenpaths, a function of a previously formed idea of order, of a given mentality. Our legaltheorising today is built mostly separatedly either on the classification and interpretation of facts or on the re-conventionalisation of the philosophical generalisation of concepts, with little interaction between the two types of approaches and research attitudes. Therefore, in order to encourage debate and commensurability, it is important that notions of law, at least tacitly assumed to substantiate their choices of subject, are clarified.

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From amongst legal theories of Socialisms’ Marxism, Hungarian scholarship played a rather balancing role all along. Characterised by dialogue and successful mediation, it strove to take a middle-of-the-road stance within the Socialist orbit. It took the professional requirements of scholarship rather seriously within the bounds of feasibility at varying times. Under restrictive conditions and despite ideological dictates, it filled a fermentative role. All in all, it made both (1) the sociological approach and (2) the historico-comparative perspective accepted in the Socialist world by transcending legal positivism and especially “Socialist normativism”, on the one hand, and by breaking out from domestic/regional self-seclusion, on the other. Moreover, it (3) introduced the ontological perspective, built upon the epistemological perspective, exclusive till then, and thereby it could attribute ontic significance to the self-explanation and self-representation of different legal cultures, usually treated as having merely an ideological importance; and (4) by developing a law and modernisation theory, it could address Central and Eastern Europe in a responsive way. The overview starting by assessing the legacy in the end of WWII concludes in a parallel characterisation of the state of scholarship and its achievements throughout the countries concerned by the end of the Soviet rule. Through and owing to all this, the Hungarian pattern offered a relatively near-to-optimum alternative, a kind of optimality in its solutions and responses.

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Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life saving method usually applied in the Intensive Care Units (ICU) for patients in a critical condition. Today it is more and more obvious that patients treated in the ICU require not only intensive physical (medical) care, but also intensive psychological support in order to avoid severe stress and to cope with the situation. They need help to understand the aim and helpfulness of the treatment, and information about the peculiar or frightening aspects of the situation, in order to promote positive processing. In this paper we summarise an approach, called psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS), where patients on MV were supported with suggestions based on the principles of hypnotic communication. We present the foci of the phases of (1) initiation, (2) maintenance and (3) weaning off from MV from a psychological point of view, along with some verbatim suggestions we used with patients during these three completely different phases of MV. The main results of a randomised prospective study testing the effectiveness of PSBPS are presented briefly.

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Location and tissue preference of filamental-type myxosporean plasmodia in histological slides of the gills can be properly identified only in cross sections of the gill filaments. The authors selected three myxosporeans (Myxobolus rutili, M. dispar and Henneguya psorospermica, parasites of the roach, the common carp and the pike, respectively) for studying the problem. The plasmodia of these species studied in longitudinal sections were earlier regarded as developing inside the filamental arteries. Cross sections of the filaments showed that all the three species developed plasmodia in the dense connective tissue constituting the adventitia of gill arteries and covering the cartilaginous gill rays. Myxobolus rutili started its development close to the afferent branchial artery but attached to the cartilaginous gill ray. More developed plasmodia of this species surrounded the rays. Plasmodia of M. dispar were formed on the inner side of the afferent branchial artery, while those of H. psorospermica were located at the external side of the efferent branchial artery.

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A lélegeztetett betegek sorsának kimenetele hosszú és rövid távon is függ az intenzív osztályon és a lélegeztetőgépen töltött időtől. Az intenzív osztályos kezelést túlélt betegek egészséghez kötött életminősége bizonyítottan összefügg az intenzíves kezelés fizikai és pszichés hatásaival. Előző multicentrikus randomizált vizsgálatunkban bemutattuk az intenzíves kezeléssel egy időben adott pszichés támogatás hatását. Célkitűzés: A jelen post hoc analízis célja, hogy bemutassa a pszichés támogatás hatását, amikor azt folytonosan ugyanaz, a teamhez tartozó terapeuta biztosítja. Módszer: A post hoc analízisbe 36 beteg került: 17 a kontroll-, 19 a vizsgálati csoportba. A vizsgálati csoport naponta részesült pozitív szuggesztiókon alapuló pszichés támogatásban, amelyet a kezelés minimum 50%-ában ugyanaz a terapeuta végzett. A kontrollcsoport ugyanazt a kezelést kapta, a pszichológus bevonása nélkül. A két csoport között nem volt különbség korban, nemben, SAPSII-pontokban és az orvosi alapellátásban. Eredmények: Az eredmények szignifikánsan rövidebb gépi lélegeztetést (3,6 nap, p < 0,014) és osztályon tartózkodást (4,2 nap, p < 0,022) mutattak a vizsgálati csoport esetében. Következtetések: Ezek az eredmények igazolják az intenzív osztályos team teljes tagjaként alkalmazott pszichológus értékét és annak fontosságát, hogy gondoskodjunk a betegek pszichés támogatásáról.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Antal Farkas, László Lőrincz, Csaba Berczi, Attila Varga, and Csaba Tóth

A szerzők nefroszkóp és ablakos kőfogó segítségével új, minimálisan invazív eljárást dolgoztak ki a juxtavesicalis uréterszakaszban elakadt kövek eltávolítására. Módszerüket ostiolitholapaxiának nevezték el. A dolgozatban ismertetik a beavatkozás részleteit és elért eredményeiket. – 1995. 1. 1. és 2006. 12. 31. között 48 ostiolitholapaxiát végeztek. 41 esetben sikeres kőeltávolítás történt, 7 esetben pedig ureteroscopiára került sor. A szerzők a 41 sikeres esetüket dolgozzák fel, részletesen ismertetve a műtéti technikát. A röntgenpozitív kövek átlagos nagysága 5,2 (3–12) mm volt. A férfi és nőbetegek aránya: 23/18. 19 beteget helyi, 22 beteget gerinc közeli érzéstelenítésben operáltak. A helyi érzéstelenítésben operált betegek közül 13 nő (68,4%), 6 (31,6%) pedig férfi beteg volt. A műtét átlagos időtartama 8,5 (3,5–35) perc, az átlagos utánkövetési idő pedig 95,3 (2–143) hónap volt. – A beavatkozás 85,41%-ban volt sikeres. Intraoperatív szövődmény nem fordult elő. Az utánkövetés során passzázszavart okozó uréterszűkület, illetve vesicoureteralis reflux kialakulását nem tapasztalták. – Tekintve a módszer egyszerűségét, hatékonyságát, valamint azt, hogy lokális anesztéziában is elvégezhető, és nem igényel bonyolult műszerezettséget, a módszer valamennyi kisebb méretű, röntgenpozitív, szájadékközeli, panaszokat és/vagy passzázsakadályt okozó kő esetében alkalmazható.

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The purpose of intensive care is recovery from the critical state with the best possible quality of life. Lengthy therapy with its physical and psychological complications and iatrogen effect may spoil the expected outcome. The positive effect of the psychological support of the patient that can be proven empirically has been applied and examined in the present study. In the present prospective, randomised, controlled study the patients – mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours – of two intensive care units of Budapest have been examined. In the study they were given psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) using their susceptibility induced by the situation, complementing their somatic treatment. Altogether 60 persons have been examined (27 in the control, 33 in the suggestion group). The result showed a statistically significant 2.5 day shorter ventilation period ( p < 0.04). The length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) was also reduced by 4 days in the group who received suggestions. If the patient was treated by the same psychologist during at least 50% of the ICU stay, both parameters were reduced by 3.5 days at a significance level of p < 0.01. In the case of those patients with the same psychologist who died during the study, it was mainly their age and state that contributed to their death. Their dying was 4.5 days shorter or they left the ICU sooner than the control group members, in whose case lengthy ventilation was typical.

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