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In this paper, we elaborated a new concept (the Regularities-Deviations-Uniqueness; RDU framework) to analyse regional vegetation patterns and applied it to the Pannonian region of the Carpathian Basin. We introduced three criteria, namely: distributional regularity, distributional deviation, and compositional uniqueness. Regularities conform to the pattern expected based on macroclimate and relief. Deviations are singular phenomena and are defined as the conspicuous departures from the regular pattern at odds with either zonal pattern (climate rules), or the repetitive extrazonal patterns (relief and meso-climate interactions). Endemic plant communities of the Pannonian region (defined by a unique species composition) are regarded as the unique features. The main regularities recognised for the Pannonian region are: (1) the altitudinal pattern of vegetation belts, (2) the horizontal zonation of the Dunántúl, (3) the gradient of continentality along the mountain ranges, and (4) the circular zonality of the Nagyalföld. Deviations are mostly explained by local vegetation history, mesoclimate, and edaphic factors. The major deviations include (i) occurrence of mixed Pinus sylvestris forests in Őrség, (ii) cool continental forest-steppe forests on Kisalföld, and Gödöllői-dombvidék, (iii) the direct contact of Fagus and Quercus pubescens forests (Bakony, Balatonfelvidék), (iv) the Fraxinus excelsior-Tilia spp. forests on rock outcrops, and (v) the Sphagnum bogs on the Alföld. Individuality of the Pannonian region is demonstrated by the endemic zonal forest-steppe forests and intrazonal endemic communities such as the Cerasus mahaleb-Quercus pubescens forests, and the vegetation on calcareous sand, dolomite and saline soils and the like. We argue that the introduced criteria are suitable for the entitation and description of other biogeographical regions, and offer useful tool for interregional comparisons.

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Introduction

Sepsis is a challenge for health professionals. The increasing number of cases emphasizes the importance of early recognition resulting in better survival.

Materials and methods

Questionnaires were spread focusing on the prehospital recognition, treatment, and care pathway of septic patients. After presenting an initial scenario, other sepsis-like diseases were given as diagnosis of choice and the answers were registered. After redefining the situation, the same potential diagnoses were given and the difference in correct answers was detected.

Results

The number of responders was 120. Among them, 33% of responders chose hypovolaemia, 10% allergic reaction, 2.5% endocrine disease, 30.8% systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis, 0.83% internal bleeding, 0.83% drug effect, 2.5% pulmonary embolism, and 19.17% metabolic disorder as primary diagnosis with a significantly higher number of trained paramedics highlighting the correct answer. After redefining the scenario, 63% changed the diagnosis, while 37% did not change (p < .001). Further management was correctly chosen by the majority of responders.

Discussion

The small number of correct answers from non-paramedics highlights the need for more education in identifying the pitfalls of early recognition and therapy of those who attend patients first.

Conclusion

Trained paramedics recognize the sepsis better than other representatives, necessitating the introduction of new guidelines.

Open access

The authors report the data of the first survey on the incidence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) in Hungary. A PCR method specific for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) was developed, which proved to be suitable for diagnostic purposes. PCR screening of organ samples from pigs suspected to be affected with PMWS or PDNS revealed the presence of PCV-2 in 80% of the cases. Six PCV-2 genomes from Hungarian isolates were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison with all the available PCV-2 sequences showed that porcine circoviruses circulating in Hungary are more variable than in several other European countries. Two Hungarian strains clustered together with the Spanish strains forming a distinct group; two others fell in a common group with the French, UK, and Dutch strains, whereas another two strains showed the closest relationship to two of the three known German PCV-2 sequences.

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The insecticide formulation BI 58 EC was tested for teratogenicity in chicken embryos, with particular reference to degradation of the active ingredient (dimethoate) after the treatment of embryonated eggs. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level of 0.8%, and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen’s eggs were treated by the immersion technique. Residues of dimethoate were measured in the samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and morphological examinations were performed simultaneously. Analytical chemistry data indicated a slower degradation of dimethoate in embryos after the immersion of eggs, and cyllosis was remarkable in this group among the sporadic developmental anomalies. The liver tissues ofboth treated groups exhibited severe fatty infiltration.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
T. Emri
,
Brigitta Oláh
,
L. Sámi
,
Zs. Molnár
,
Márta Nagy
,
Tünde Pusztahelyi
, and
I. Pócsi
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Abstract  

As decay products, helium isotopes can clearly indicate the presence of tritium and alpha decaying isotopes in a closed system. This study presents the helium and neon measurements and their interpretation of long-term headspace gas investigations in L/ILW waste drums from Paks Nuclear Power Plant and closed vaults of the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility, Püspökszilágy, Hungary. Development of special sampling methods and preparation lines as well as isotope-analytical measurements of the headspace gas samples were done in the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies in the ATOMKI. In the gas samples helium isotopes as well as neon isotopes have been determined mass spectrometrically. While neon content can be of atmospheric origin only, helium can be produced either by alpha decay (4He) or decay of tritium (3He). 3H/4He and He/Ne ratios have been used to determine the different origin of the helium isotopes. Helium isotope ratios always represented 3He enrichment in the headspace gases produced by the decay of the tritium in the waste. Using the recent 3He concentration in headspace gas the total amount of 3H restored in L/ILW vaults was estimated. The investigated seven different vaults were closed between 1979 and 1995 when they had been full with L/ILW. The calculated tritium activities based on the He measurements showed good agreement with the documented isotope inventory of the vaults. Typical tritium activity concentrations were between 0.1 and 10 Bq/L gas in the drums and between 10 and 1000 Bq/L gas in the vaults. Additionally, one drum showed a higher He/Ne ratio compared to air, which clearly indicates 4He excess, thus the presence an alpha source in the waste.

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Abstract  

Modifications of lens proteins play a crucial role in the formation of cataract, which is among the leading causes of world blindness in the ageing population. Although modern cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is a very successful and safe procedure, the prevention of cataract formation would be a real breakthrough in this field of ophthalmology. The aim of our study was to analyse the thermal denaturation of the cataractous lens proteins by the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to understand cataract formation and to work on its prevention possibilities. Samples were obtained from cataract patients of different age, sex, patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Samples were obtained from lenses of mature degree and progredient degree of cataract as well. Previous DSC examinations were performed on manually extracted human cataractous lens materials, however to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study, in which DSC examinations were performed on lens materials obtained by the phacoemulsification technique, which gained acceptance world-wide in the last decade.

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Abstract  

In this paper, the development of a new-type of resin is presented, which contains selective complexing and scintillating molecules in a chemically bonded form. The resin material is produced via radiation polymerization of a solution of 2-(4-allyloxy-phenyl)-5-phenyl oxazole, 5-(allyloxy-phenyl)-2-[4-(5-phenyl-oxazole-2-il)-phenyl] oxazole, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGMA), styrene and the allyl derivative of a 18C6 crown ether-dicarbolic acid complexing agent. The product is a macroporous polymer matrix that shows fluorescent properties and ion binding capacity excellent for radioanalytical purposes.

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Abstract  

Understanding the characteristics of diffusion is essential in the assessment of radionuclide release through the backfill of waste repository. The diffusion behavior of 3H, 99Tc, 125I, 36Cl and 85Sr in granite, concrete and bentonite was studied in a specially designed diffusion cell. Diffusion coefficients (D, D a) and time-lag (t a) were measured, break-trough curves were plotted and experimental data were interpreted to predict diffusion rates. The results showed that tritium, iodine and chlorine could be considered as non-sorbing tracers, while technetium was weakly and strontium was strongly sorbed (no break-through was observed during the period of the experiments).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Sz. Bánvölgyi
,
T. Vatai
,
Zs. Molnár
,
I. Kiss
,
Ž. Knez
,
Gy. Vatai
, and
M. Škerget

Two novel technologies were applied in order to investigate concentration and formulation of anthocyanins for potential use in food industry. Integrated membrane process technology was applied for concentrating elderberry juice. In the first step, the juice was clarified by microfiltration, followed by a pre-concentration step with reverse osmosis. Finally, the juice was concentrated to the end concentration of 56 °Brix by osmotic distillation. The elderberry juice concentrate was formulated in a powderous form by a high-pressure process — Particles from Gas Saturated Solution (PGSS™) — using supercritical CO2. The applied carrier material was palm fat. The products with different anthocyanin-carrier ratios were measured for their colour properties (lightness, hue angle, and saturation). Colour stability was monitored for prolonged storage at different conditions (light/dark and ambient temperature/ refrigerator). The obtained powderous anthocyanin-palm fat products showed good colour stability, which gives good bases for potential applications in the future.

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