In Spain the consumption of bakery products is increasing, while that of bread is decreasing. Baked goods have a high fat and sugar content, and their intake accounts for a high percentage of the food consumed by the population for breakfast, mid-morning and mid-afternoon meals. Twenty products, with and without cream and chocolate, were analysed. The nutrients examined were proteins, fats and fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, starch, and fibre. The values for carbohydrates ranged between 36.8% and 62.3%, and for sugars between 9.0% and 33.8%. The fat content ranged from 6.0% to 36.8%, while 76% of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) determined were atherogenic acids. In accordance with daily energy intake recommendations for SFA and sugars, the intake of one serving of the product provides 25% or more of the recommended energy from SFA for nine of the twenty baked goods tested, and more than 15% of the energy recommended from sugars for fourteen of these products.
The complex [Pd(2-Phpy)(-Cl)]2 reacts with pyridines (L=pyridine, α-picoline and γ-picoline), amines (L=isopropylamine, tert-butylamine) and ammonia to form the corresponding ortho-palladatedderivatives [Pd(2-Phpy)ClL]. The compounds have been characterized by C, H and Nanalyses and spectroscopic methods
(IR and 1H and 13C NMR).TG, DTG and DSC studies of the complexes were carried out in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. From DSC analyses the heats
of decomposition were calculated. The kinetics ofthe first step of thermal decomposition were evaluated from TG data by isothermal
methods for L=pyridine and isopropylamine. The activation energies obtained are in the range 90–100 kJ mol-1. The best
fitting for data was observed for R2 and A1.5 kinetic models.
The importance of space as an ecological factor is an emerging paradigm in community ecology, particularly as a driving force of biodiversity patterns. We analysed β-diversity linked to spatial structure in four communities (tropical dry forest, savanna, xerophytic vegetation, subdeciduous forest) that occur in a tropical complex landscape of southern Mexico. The landscape was described through an object-oriented classification of a Quickbird satellite image. The classification revealed a highly heterogeneous spatial arrangement of the four communities. Global (landscape-level) β-diversity was 0.12 (mean Sørensen index), a value smaller than those observed for the individual communities (0.20–0.41). By using multivariate classic and partial Mantel tests, and Mantel correlograms based on two distance classes, we analysed β-diversity spatial variation related to landscape configuration. The Mantel statistic values for the four communities combined were negative and very similar both for the classic Mantel (rM = −0.23) and the partial Mantel test (rM = −0.19). Correlograms proved significant spatial autocorrelation across most of the analysed distance classes, except in the case of riparian subdeciduous forest. Tropical dry forest and savanna occupy large, highly connected areas in the landscape. Correlograms for these two communities showed decreasing trends, starting at positive, significant autocorrelation values at short distances. The loss of floristic autocorrelation beyond a 5000 m distance for the tropical dry forest may reflect spatially autocorrelated dispersal, and thus a dispersal-limited community. Xerophytic vegetation displayed a distinctly different correlogram, with a wavy shape showing an alternation of positive and negative values, in agreement with the insular configuration of this community in the landscape. We suggest that the routinely incorporation of a spatial approach in community ecology research will help in furthering our understanding of the elusive issues of species turnover across space.
We investigate the extension to Banach-space-valued functions of the classical inequalities due to Paley for the Fourier coefficients
with respect to a general orthonormal system Φ. This leads us to introduce the notions of Paley Φ-type and Φ-cotype for a
Banach space and some related concepts. We study the relations between these notions of type and cotype and those previously
defined. We also analyze how the interpolation spaces inherit these characteristics from the original spaces, and use them
to obtain sharp coefficient estimates for functions taking values in Lorentz spaces.
We characterize the supports of the measures having quadrature formulae with similar exactness as Gauss’ theorem. Indeed we
obtain the supports of the measures from which an m-point quadrature formula can be obtained such that it exactly integrates functions in the space ℙm−k,m−k[
The study of soils is very important in the geological and geological engineering researches. A study of ten samples of soils
was carried out by thermal analysis, and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to understand soil evolution in Angra dos Reis region,
Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample collection sites were chosen based on geological characteristics, the soil layer
thickness, the soil composition pattern, and whether or not it was moved either by erosion or by gravitational shifts. Because
of the humid tropical climatic condition, natural soils tend to show great thickness of weathered mantles with formation of
saprolites and saprolite soils. Kaolinite is an important secondary mineral which can be formed from many different minerals,
like k-mica and k-feldspar and can be weathered to gibbsite. The results from TG/DTG and DTA indicated which soils had more weathering, and
the same results were obtained by XRF, when silica/aluminum ratios from samples are compared with thermal analysis results.
Nb2O5 supported on SiO2-Al2O3 were prepared with a wide loading range (2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mass%) and analyzed by simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG)
and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The materials presented a phase transition close to 1364°C. This phase transition
was studied by XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Amixture of orthorhombic (T) andmonoclinic (H andM) crystalline phases was
evidenced in the supported samples, which is coverage dependent, in contrast to the formation of only the monoclinic phase
(H and M) when pure Nb2O5 is heated under the same conditions. These results indicate the stabilization of Nb2O5 on silica-alumina surface.
The thermal treatment of the pentafluorophenyl derivativesM(C6F5)2Dxn [M=Pd (n=2, 3) or Pt (n=2); Dx=dioxane] leads to the formation of the new dioxane adducts M(C6F5)2Dx (M=Pd, Pt) and Pt(C6F5)2Dx1.5. Calculations of the order of reaction and the activation energy of some of the decomposition reactions are described. The values were determined by the Coats-Redfern and Freeman-Carroll methods. Structural data on the isolated intermediates were obtained by infrared spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements.
Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) of medium molecular mass was cured using o-tolylbiguanide (TBG) as cross-linking agent. In order to improve the kinetics of the reactive system, two Lewis acid catalysts
(erbium(III) and ytterbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates) were added in proportions of 1 phr. The kinetic study was performed
by dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the complete kinetic triplet (E, A and g(α)) determined. The kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic
model was determined by the Coats-Redfern method and through the compensation effect (IKR). All the systems followed the m=1.5/n=0.5 isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal experiments. The addition of a little proportion of ytterbium or
erbium triflates accelerated the curing process. In order to extract further information about the role of the lanthanide
triflates added to epoxy/TBG systems, the kinetic results were compared with our previous kinetic studies made on DGEBA/lanthanide
triflates initiated systems.
Many aspects determine the quality of scientific journals. The impact factor is one of these quantitative parameters. However, the impact factor has a strong dependence on the journal discipline. This dependence forbids a direct comparison between different journals without introducing external considerations. In this paper, a renormalized impact factor, Fr, inspired in the definition of dimensionless physical parameters, is proposed. Fr allows a direct comparison among journals classified into different categories and, furthermore, the time evolution analysis of the journal's role in its field.