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Abstract

Intercalation complexes of three different Hungarian kaolinites with hydrazine and potassium acetate were investigated by FT-IR (DRIFT) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry. Differences were found in the thermal behaviour of the complexes as well as in the rehydration — reexpansion patterns of the heated intercalates. An XRD method is proposed for the distinction of kaolinite and 7.2 Å halloysite present in the same mineral.

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Abstract

Intercalation of a kaolinite-containing halloysite from Biela Hora (Slovakia) with urea was investigated by simultaneous TG–DTA, XRD, FTIR (DRIFT), and Raman spectroscopy. The process of intercalation and thermal deintercalation was followed for the as-prepared and the washed (with isopropanol) samples. The proposed structural model was supported by molecular mechanical calculations. Incorporation of the intercalate (in 5 wt%) in molten polypropylene at 200 °C resulted in the complete delamination of the mineral. It is supposed that gas formation as a result of urea decomposition between the layers prevents reorientation and restructuring of the layers.

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Abstract  

The understanding of the thermal stability of magnesium carbonates and the relative metastability of hydrous carbonates including hydromagnesite, artinite, nesquehonite, barringtonite and lansfordite is extremely important to the sequestration process for the removal of atmospheric CO2. The conventional thermal analysis of synthetic nesquehonite proves that dehydration takes place in two steps at 157, 179°C and decarbonation at 416 and 487°C. Controlled rate thermal analysis shows the first dehydration step is isothermal and the second quasi-isothermal at 108 and 145°C. In the CRTA experiment carbon dioxide is evolved at 376°C. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of magnesium carbonates such as nesquehonite via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. Constant-rate decomposition processes of non-isothermal nature reveal partial collapse of the nesquehonite structure.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Y. Zhao
,
R. Frost
,
Veronika Vágvölgyi
,
E. Waclawik
,
J. Kristóf
, and
Erzsébet Horváth

Abstract  

Yttrium doped boehmite nanofibres with varying yttrium content have been prepared at low temperatures using a hydrothermal treatment in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant (PEO). The resultant nanofibres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images showed the resulting nanostructures are predominantly nanofibres when Y-doping is less than 5%; in contrast Y-rich phases were formed when doping was around 10%. The doped boehmite and the subsequent nanofibres/nanotubes were analyzed by thermogravimetric and controlled rate thermal analysis methods. The boehmite nanofibres produced in this research thermally transform at higher temperatures than boehmite crystals and boehmite platelets. Boehmite nanofibres decompose at higher temperatures than non-hydrothermally treated boehmite.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Veronika Vágvölgyi
,
R. Frost
,
M. Hales
,
A. Locke
,
J. Kristóf
, and
Erzsébet Horváth

Abstract  

The reaction of magnesium minerals such as brucite with CO2 is important in the sequestration of CO2. The study of the thermal stability of hydromagnesite and diagenetically related compounds is of fundamental importance to this sequestration. The understanding of the thermal stability of magnesium carbonates and the relative metastability of hydrous carbonates including hydromagnesite, artinite, nesquehonite, barringtonite and lansfordite is extremely important to the sequestration process for the removal of atmospheric CO2. This work makes a comparison of the dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis of hydromagnesite and nesquehonite. The dynamic thermal analysis of synthetic hydromagnesite proves that dehydration takes place in two steps at 135 and 184°C, dehydroxylation at 412°C and decarbonation at 474°C. Controlled rate thermal analysis shows the first dehydration step is isothermal and the second quasi-isothermal at 108 and 145°C, respectively. In the CRTA experiment both water and carbon dioxide are evolved in an isothermal decomposition at 376°C. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of magnesium carbonates such as nesquehonite via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. Constant-rate decomposition processes of non-isothermal nature reveal partial nesquehonite structure.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Veronika Vágvölgyi
,
M. Hales
,
W. Martens
,
J. Kristóf
,
Erzsébet Horváth
, and
R. Frost

Abstract  

The understanding of the thermal stability of zinc carbonates and the relative stability of hydrous carbonates including hydrozincite and hydromagnesite is extremely important to the sequestration process for the removal of atmospheric CO2. The hydration-carbonation or hydration-and-carbonation reaction path in the ZnO-CO2-H2O system at ambient temperature and atmospheric CO2 is of environmental significance from the standpoint of carbon balance and the removal of green house gases from the atmosphere. The dynamic thermal analysis of hydrozincite shows a 22.1% mass loss at 247°C. The controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) pattern of hydrozincite shows dehydration at 38°C, some dehydroxylation at 170°C and dehydroxylation and decarbonation in a long isothermal step at 190°C. The CRTA pattern of smithsonite shows a long isothermal decomposition with loss of CO2 at 226°C. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of zinc carbonate minerals via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. The CRTA technology offers a mechanism for the study of the thermal decomposition and relative stability of minerals such as hydrozincite and smithsonite.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Veronika Vágvölgyi
,
Lisa Daniel
,
Caroline Pinto
,
J. Kristóf
,
R. Frost
, and
Erzsébet Horváth

Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of the clay mineral attapulgite has been studied using a combination of dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis. In the dynamic experiment two dehydration steps are observed over the 20–114 and 114–201°C temperature range. In the dynamic experiment three dehydroxylation steps are observed over the temperature ranges 201–337, 337–638 and 638–982°C. The CRTA technology enables the separation of the thermal decomposition steps. Calculations show the amount of water in the attapulgite mineral is variable. Dehydration in the CRTA experiment occurs as quasi-isothermal equilibria. Dehydroxylation occurs as a series of non-isothermal decomposition steps. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of a clay mineral such as attapulgite via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. Constant-rate decomposition processes of non-isothermal nature reveal partial collapse of the layers of attapulgite as the attapulgite is converted to an anhydride.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of halloysite fully expanded with hydrazine-hydrate has been investigated in nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating and at a constant, pre-set decomposition rate of 0.15 mg min-1. Under controlled-rate thermal analysis (CRTA) conditions it was possible to resolve the closely overlapping decomposition stages and to distinguish between adsorbed and bonded reagent. Three types of bonded reagent could be identified. The loosely bonded reagent amounting to 0.20 mol hydrazine-hydrate per mol inner surface hydroxyl is connected to the internal and external surfaces of the expanded mineral and is present as a space filler between the sheets of the delaminated mineral. The strongly bonded (intercalated) hydrazine-hydrate is connected to the kaolinite inner surface OH groups by the formation of hydrogen bonds. Based on the thermoanalytical results two different types of bonded reagent could be distinguished in the complex. Type 1 reagent (approx. 0.06 mol hydrazine-hydrate/mol inner surface OH) is liberated between 77 and 103C. Type 2 reagent is lost between 103 and 227C, corresponding to a quantity of 0.36 mol hydrazine/mol inner surface OH. When heating the complex to 77C under CRTA conditions a new reflection appears in the XRD pattern with a d-value of 9.6 , in addition to the 10.2 Ĺ reflection. This new reflection disappears in contact with moist air and the complex re-expands to the original d-value of 10.2 in a few h. The appearance of the 9.6 reflection is interpreted as the expansion of kaolinite with hydrazine alone, while the 10.2 one is due to expansion with hydrazine-hydrate. FTIR (DRIFT) spectroscopic results showed that the treated mineral after intercalation/deintercalation and heat treatment to 300C is slightly more ordered than the original (untreated) clay.

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Abstract

Introduction: The 2009 pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A virus shows a markedly different disease pattern than seasonal strains, causing critical illness in relatively young, female, pregnant individuals as well as in comorbid patients. Materials and methods: The Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of Semmelweis University served as a regional influenza center for the adult critically ill during the winter of pH1N1 outbreak. We analyzed data collected from 26 suspected pH1N1 critically ill patients treated in our unit during this period. Results: Sixteen cases were confirmed as pH1N1 infection with RT-PCR, while the other 10 patients with influenza like illness showed tendency to a different age and comorbidity, as well as outcome characteristics, suggesting a different pathogenesis. Confirmed pH1N1 patients showed a mean age of 50.5 years (median: 44; range: 20–85), with female predominancy (69%). Comorbidity was present in 69% of cases (chronic heart conditions, chronic pulmonary disease, previous history of malignancy present in 31; 25 and 19%, respectively). Twenty-five percent of the patients were pregnant women. Nineteen percent of the cases received previous pH1N1 vaccination. But two patients were later readmitted for worsening chronic conditions that led to death, which resulted in a total mortality rate of 31%. Mean APACHE II and SOFA scores on admittance were 12.2 and 5.3, respectively. Average length of treatment was 11.5 days (median: 6.5; range 2–50 days). All patients received ventilatory assistance, 69% of patients received invasive, while 31% of patients received non-invasive ventilatory assistance. The average number of days of invasive ventilation was 10.5 days (median: 5.5; range: 2–45). Forty-five percent of ventilated patients required rescue ARDS therapy. Complications included hemodynamic instability (56%); acute renal failure (13%) and pneumothorax (13%). Superinfection with other microbes were observed in 56% of the patients. Conclusions: In our study, pH1N1 infected critically ill patients had a wide age range, but were more commonly female, pregnant, or had a previously described underlying disease. Mortality, length of treatment, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, length of mechanical ventilation, major complication rates were similar to those previously described. A previously not reported relatively high occurrence of pneumothorax was noted, which is possibly a long-term complication of severe viral pneumonitis.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Katalin Kristóf
,
L. Janik
,
Kinga Komka
,
Ágnes Harmath
,
Júlia Hajdú
,
A. Nobilis
,
F. Rozgonyi
,
K. Nagy
,
J. Rigó
, and
Dóra Szabó

The occurrence of Candida spp. was investigated during a three-year period in two neonatal intensive care units, Budapest, Hungary. The species distribution among the 41 analysed cases was the following: C. albicans (30/41, 73%), C. parapsilosis (10/41, 24%) and C. glabrata (1/41, 3%). All of the isolates were susceptible to the tested drugs. There was a significant difference in the birth weight, the gestational age <30 weeks and the occurrence of caesarean section between the C. albicans and the C. parapsilosis groups of the cases. Respiratory tract colonization was the same (76–77%) in the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and the very low birth weight (VLBW) groups. Comparing the ELBW, VLBW, and >1500 g birth weight groups, significant difference was found in the parenteral nutrition, the gestation weeks <36 or <30, the polymicrobial infection and the transfusion. The ratio of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata was 9:7:1 in ELBW group; 6:3:0 in VLBW group and 15:1:0 in >1500 g group. The mortality rate for C. parapsilosis was higher than for C. albicans.

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