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  • Author or Editor: K. Kobayashi x
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The postnatal development of the corticothalamic projection from the lateral suprasylvian cortex (LS) to the lateral medialis-suprageniculate nucleus (LM-Sg) of the cat thalamus was assessed by means of the anterograde tracer biocytin. In the adult, two types of corticothalamic fibers were found: type I established a network of fine fibers present throughout the LM-Sg, it was characterized by a linear sequence of small (less than 0.5 m in diameter), single terminal boutons making contact mainly with thin dendrites and/or dendritic spines. Type II, found less frequently, gave off short, side branches near axon terminals and formed clusters of 5-10 large terminal boutons (0.5-1.5 m in diameter), making contact predominately with medium-sized dendrites and/or vesicle-containing profiles, forming a synaptic glomerulus. At birth (P0), anterogradely-labeled fibers were found in the LM-Sg as in adults. In the early postnatal period (until P6) as well as around the time of eye-opening (P7-P10) to P21, neonatal fibers were largely unbranched many of them having axons tipped with growth cones. Axon terminals containing synaptic vesicles were rarely observed but when present these exhibited considerable variation in their morphological appearance of synapses. Thus, it was not possible to categorize them into the two types of axons which characterize the adult. After P25, terminal swellings bearing a close resemblance to those of type II fibers begin to appear. In this way, the main two corticothalamic fiber types could be identified. These findings demonstrate that significant postnatal changes occur in the synaptology of corticothalamic fibers in the LM-Sg, particularly with the maturation of type II fibers.

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We present a brief description of the status of our accelerator mass spectrometry system at the tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo and some examples of measurements in environmental samples which have been recently performed. Fallout10Be activities have been measured, from rain samples collected monthly in Tokyo from 1975 to 1977 and from 1984 to 1986, and compared with those of7Be and137Cs. A preliminary experiment on14C measurement in volcanic gas samples is also reported.

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To establish a practical method for monitoring 129I concentration in airborne release from the Tokai reprocessing plant, the 129I collecting performance of sampling media used was tested by in situ experiments. The results indicated that the combined use of an activated charcoal-impregnated filter paper and an activated charcoal cartridge gives a collection efficiency of more than 90% for a one-week sampling of real airborne effluent, at sampling flow rates of 40.6-75.0 l. min-1. The sampling and measurement conditions suitable for a routine-base monitoring are demonstrated.

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Thermal neutron activation analysis of hafnium in zircaloy was investigated with a Van de Graaff accelerator. Thermal neutrons were obtained by moderating Be−D fast neutrons with paraffin blocks.179mHf isotope with a half-life of 18.6 s, produced by178Hf(n, γ)179mHf reaction, was utilized in the present analysis. This method made it possible to analyze hafnium rapidly and non-destructively by using scandium as an internal standard material. Several tens to hundreds of ppm of hafnium in zircaloy samples were determined within 2 minutes with a precision of about ±1%.

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Chemical compositions of spherules separated from deep sea sediment dredged off Hawaiian islands and from Antarctic ice were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Iron, cobalt, nickel, iridium, scandium and manganese contents in those spherules were determined to be 19.3–97.7%, 23–4370 mg·kg−1, 0.08–7.04%, 0.84–35.4 mg·kg−1, 1.4–44.3 mg·kg−1 and 93.4 mg·kg−1–7.2 %, respectively, and compared with each other. Particularly, iridium was detected in seven spherules among fourteen from Hawaii, but only one spherule among twenty-two from Antarctic, and those spherules turned out to be extraterrestrial in origin. However, it was shown that there was little difference in characteristics of elemental contents between both kinds of spherules, except for Ir-detected spherules.

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Chemical composition of 15 magnetic spherules collected from deep sea sediment was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) under two different irradiation conditions using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Based on their chemical composition, nine spherules were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin. The differences in the chemical composition of the nine spherules are discussed in terms of condensation temperatures for the elements. Comparing the detection limits derived from INAA under two different irradiation conditions, the sensitivity for INAA using KUR is discussed.

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Airborne particulate matter was collected at the intersection of Industrial Road in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan using a 12-stage low-pressure impactor. High concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been observed in this area. The collected samples were analyzed for 34 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and data on the elemental concentrations were obtained. High concentrations of fine particles of As, Br, Sb, V, and Zn were observed. It was further observed that these fine particles were originated predominantly from the wear of tires and brakes, and not from automobile exhaust emissions.

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A simple and reliable sampling system for 3H and 14C in airborne release from nuclear facilities was designed. The sampling system can collect 3H and 14C simultaneously with a condensation technique using a commercially available cold trap equipment and a CO2 absorption technique using an organic alkali monoethanolamine solution, respectively. In situ performance tests for the effluent from a reprocessing plant showed that the system has high and stable efficiencies for collecting 3H and 14C for a one-week batch sampling at a sampling flow rate of 0.4 l . min-1. These collection techniques also provided a simple procedure of following sample preparation for activity measurements by liquid scintillation counting. The detectable concentrations of the proposed monitoring method were 3.0 Bq . m-3 for 3H and 1.6 Bq . m-3 for 14C, respectively. The sensitivity would be on an acceptable level for routine monitoring of airborne release at nuclear facilities.

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The proton activation analysis of oxygen was studied in fluoride and chalcogenide glasses used for fiber amplifiers. First, we studied the interfering nuclear reactions from glass matrices to determine the oxygen concentration in these glasses. By using substoichiometric separation for 18F after irradiation, we found that the oxygen concentration was 12 to 204 ppm in InF3-based fluoride glass and 0.04% to 0.7% in chalcogenide glass containing sodium. We also discuss the relation between oxygen concentration and optical properties such as the infrared absorption spectrum and fluorescence lifetime.

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The CO2 absorption properties and the microstructure of (Ba,Ca)(Fe,Mg)O3 - have been studied by TGA, XRD, and Mössbauer spectrometry. Paramagnetic doublets of FeIV and FeIII appeared in the Mössbauer spectra of cubic (Ba0.5Ca0.5)(Fe0.5Mg0.5)O3 - heated in CO2 up to 600 °C, and a pair of sextets of tetrahedral FeIII (Hin = 43 T) and octahedral FeIII (Hin = 51 T) were produced above 800 °C, and an additional sextet characteristic of FeIII in a spinel structure (Hin = 48 T) was observed at 1000 °C. On the other hand, a pair of sextets of tetrahedral and octahedral FeIII of the orthorhombic (Ca0.95Ba0.05)(Fe0.5Mg0.5)O3 - showed hardly any change after absorption of CO2. It is concluded that only a small portion of Mg entered the orthorhombic phase of (Ca0.95Ba0.05)(Fe,Mg)O3 - and Mg preferred the octahedral B site of the perovskite lattice. The excess Mg formed separate CaO-MgO mixed oxide, and the primary mechanism of CO2-trapping is the formation of CaMg(CO3)2.

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