In order to reduce the toxicity of both raw wastewater and effluent from a rubber products factory, γ-ray treatment was applied
at different dose levels. The γ-ray treatment did not completely removed the toxicity, suggesting that there were major toxicants
other than destroyable organic compounds. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phase 1) was conducted to characterize major
toxicants using Daphnia magna. The suspected toxicants in both raw wastewater and effluent were mostly filterable materials and EDTA chelatable metals
and, to some degree, non-polar organic compounds. Anion-exchange removable compounds, most likely organics, were found only
in raw wastewater. Metal analyses showed that zinc and copper concentrations were above levels causing toxicity to D. magna. After 20 kGy γ-ray treatment of raw wastewater, filtrations both at pH 3 and at the initial pH (pH 3.6) showed dramatic
change (9 to 77% and 29 to 85%, respectively) in toxicity reduction, suggesting the formation of toxic filterable materials
which are stable even at acidic conditions. Unlike raw wastewater, there was no significant change in TIE results after γ-ray
treatment at 20 kGy for rubber effluent.
This communication presents the comparative experimental study of solar cookers based on the exergy analysis. In this study two different types of solar cookers viz. paraboloid type and box type have been evaluated using exergy analysis. The experiments have been carried out with cookers filled with different volume of water viz. one and two liters along with the suitable quantity of rice. Data of temperatures and solar radiation have been measured for different food stuff on clear sky day of the month. It is found that the exergy efficiency increases as the volume of water increases, however, the exergy efficiency of paraboloid solar cooker is found to be higher than that of the box-type solar cooker for all the cases mentioned above. However, it is also found that the exergy efficiency vary with the cooking stuff and water which is due to the fact that the requirement of heating vary with the food stuff.
This paper describes ongoing research into the multi-physics model development of an electrorefining process for the treatment
of spent nuclear fuel. A forced convection of molten eutectic (LiCl–KCl) electrolyte in an electrorefining cell is considered
to establish an appropriate electro-fluid model within the 3-dimensional framework of a conventional computational fluid dynamic
model. This computational platform includes the electrochemical reaction rate of charge transfer kinetics which is described
by a Butler–Volmer equation, while mass transport is considered using an ionic transport equation. The coupling of the local
overpotential distribution and uranium concentration gradient makes it possible to predict the local current density distribution
at the electrode surfaces.
Neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine 12 elements, viz. Na, Mn, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sc, Cr, Sb, Hf and Ta in high-purity Ga2O3. The first 7 elements could be determined by anion exchange separation and isopropyl ether extraction, and the last 8 elements by instrumental method. It is recommended that the first 3 elements are determine by one of the radiochemical modes and the others by the instrumental method.
A radiochemical separation method using an anion exchange resin has been applied to 3N grade Nb for determining nine impurity elements. Five elements (Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Se) were separated in 2M HF, three elements (Mo, W and Hf) in 32M HF, Nb in 0.5M HF/3M HCl, and Ta in 1M NH4F/4M NH4CCl. The contents of the elements were calculated by a single comparator method using two monitors of Au and Co. The main impurity was revealed to be Ta with a content of over 160 ppm.
A radiochemical separation method using Dowex 1×8 (200–400 mesh) has been applied to two tantalum metals of 99.9% purity. While tantalum was still retained on the resin, the elements Na, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn were separated with 2M HF and subsequently the elements Sc, As, Zr, Mo, Eu, W and Hf with a mixture of 0.5M HF and 3M HCl. The separation yields for all impurities was 98–100%. Elemental contents were calculated by a single comparator method using two monitors.
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been applied to 2N–4N grade titanium metal and its oxide. Twenty two impurities were separated in a group from scandium by a radiochemical separation method using cation exchange resin with HBr and HCl. The contents of the elements were calculated by a single comparator method using two monitors. The analytical results agree well within 10% deviation with those obtained by instrumental method. Eighteen elements, Na, Fe, Co, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Sb, La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U, are determined in titanium oxides and 17 elements, Na, Cr, Fe, Co, Se, As, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W and Th, in titanium metals.
Interferences by uranium fission for95Zr,99Mo,103Ru,140La,141Ce and147Nd have been studied using a single comparator method with two monitors. The effect of the neutron energy spectrum on the interference factor was examined by using the effective activation cross section. All the activities of140La produced during neutron irradiation of uranium were included in the calculation of the factor for lanthanum. The calculated and experimental interference factors are in good agreement within 10% deviation. The results have been applied for the analysis of several rock samples containing uranium in a wide concentration range.
A study on the separation of lithium isotope was carried out with a 1,16-dioxa-4,7,10,13- tetraazacyclooctadecane-4,7,10,13-tetramerrifield
peptide resin [N4O2·4M]. The resin having N4O2 as an anchor group has a capacity of 3.8 meq/g. Upon column chromatography [0.15 cm (I.D)×29 cm (height)] using 0.01 M NH4Cl as an eluent, the single separation factor, α=1.038 was obtained by the Glueckauf theory from the elution curve and isotope
A (D3C)2O (d6-acetone) target was irradiated with semi-monoenergetic neutrons generated from 9Be(p,n)9B reaction with 20 MeV protons to convert 13C and oxygen nuclides in the target into 14C. With both liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) we measured the (D3C)2O (d6-acetone) liquid targets, which were combustible and easy to afford CO2 for the AMS measurements. The 14C yield measured by the LSC method turned out to be 80 times larger than that by the AMS method. This large discrepancy may
be attributed to the loss of 14C atoms during the sample pretreatment in the AMS method such as combustion and cryogenic trapping of CO2. It means that 14C newly produced by nuclear reactions can exist in various chemical forms, i.e., C3D6O, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, etc., and a simple sample pretreatment right after production can cause serious isotopic fractionation. Therefore,
using the AMS method, extreme caution in sample pretreatment should be exercised when the 14C yield produced immediately by nuclear reaction is measured.