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Sunflower biodiesel

Use of P-DSC in the evaluation of antioxidant efficiency

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. L. A. Tavares
,
N. Queiroz
,
I. M. G. Santos
,
A. L. Souza
,
E. H. S. Cavalcanti
,
A. K. D. Barros
,
R. Rosenhaim
,
L. E. B. Soledade
, and
A. G. Souza

Abstract

The higher is the degree of unsaturation in ester chain of a biodiesel, the smaller is its oxidation stability. Sunflower biodiesel obtained by the ethyl route possesses a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), thus being more prone to the oxidation process. In Brazil, with the purpose of meeting the specifications of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), antioxidant additives, from synthetic and natural origins, have been added to the biofuel. Antioxidants are an alternative to prevent the oxidative deterioration of the fatty acid derivatives, as they are substances able to reduce the oxidation rate. In this study, the oxidative stability of sunflower biodiesel, obtained by the ethyl route and additivated with different concentrations of the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), was evaluated by means of Pressure differential scanning calorimetry (P-DSC) and the Accelerated oxidative stability test (Rancimat, Method EN 14112). The results obtained by the two techniques showed the same oxidation tendency. Thus, P-DSC can be used as an alternative to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel. The antioxidant TBHQ, added to biodiesel at the concentrations of 2000 and 2500 mg kg−1, raised the oxidation induction time to a value higher than 6 h, the limit established by the Resolution ANP number 7/2008, thus being the best alternative among the studied antioxidants.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
F. T. G. Vieira
,
A. L. M. Oliveira
,
D. S. Melo
,
S. J. G. Lima
,
E. Longo
,
A. S. Maia
,
A. G. Souza
, and
I. M. G. Santos

Abstract

Alkaline earth stannates have recently become important materials in ceramic technology due to its application as humidity sensor. In this work, alkaline earth stannates doped with Fe3+ were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, with calcination at 300 °C/7 h and between 400 and 1100 °C/4 h. The powder precursors were characterized by TG/DTA after partial elimination of carbon. Characterization after the second calcination step was done by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results confirmed the formation of the SrSnO3:Fe with orthorhombic perovskite structure, besides SrCO3 as secondary phase. Crystallization occurred at 600 °C, being much lower than the crystallization temperature of perovskites synthesized by solid state reaction. The analysis of TG curves indicated that the phase crystallization was preceded by two thermal decomposition steps. Carbonate elimination occurred at two different temperatures, around 800 °C and above 1000 °C.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
F. Vieira
,
Soraia Souza
,
A. Oliveira
,
S. Lima
,
E. Longo
,
C. Paskocimas
,
L. Soledade
,
A. Souza
, and
Iêda Santos

Abstract  

In this study undoped and Cr, Sb or Mo doped TiO2 were synthesized by polymeric precursor method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–VIS spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TG). The TG curves showed a continuous mass loss assigned to the hydroxyl elimination and Cr6+ reduction. Doped TiO2 samples showed a higher mass loss assigned to water and gas elimination at lower temperatures. In these doped materials a decrease in the anatase–rutile phase transition temperature was observed. After calcination at 1,000 °C, rutile was obtained as a single phase material without the presence of Cr6+.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Camila Xavier
,
R. Candeia
,
M. Bernardi
,
S. Lima
,
E. Longo
,
C. Paskocimas
,
L. Soledade
,
A. Souza
, and
Iêda Santos

Abstract  

Magnesium and zinc ferrites have been prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The organic material decomposition was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The variation of crystalline phases and particle morphology with calcination temperature were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), respectively. The colors of the ferrites were evaluated using colorimetry. Magnesium ferrite crystallizes above 800°C, presenting a yellow- orange color with a reflectance peak at the 600–650 nm range, while zinc ferrite crystallizes at 600°C, with a reflectance peak between 650–700 nm, corresponding to the red-brick color.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
F. S. M. Sinfrônio
,
J. C. O. Santos
,
L. G. Pereira
,
A. G. Souza
,
M. M. Conceiçăo
,
V. J. Fernandes Jr.
, and
V. M. Fonseca
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Alexandre G. S. Prado
,
André L. F. Santos
,
Carolina P. Pedroso
,
Thiago O. Carvalho
,
Lilian R. Braga
, and
Sheila M. Evangelista

Abstract

Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polymer with great potential for pharmaceutical applications due to its biocompatibility, high charge density, and non-toxicity. In this study, chitosan microspheres were successfully prepared by an adapted method of coagulation/dispersion. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan powder was obtained by NMR 1H and FTIR techniques. Chitosan powder and chitosan microspheres were characterized by BET surface area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions among the chitosan microspheres and the vitamins A and E were characterized by FTIR. In order to evaluate the ability of interaction of vitamin A and vitamin E with the chitosan microspheres, the thermodynamic parameters were followed by calorimetric titration. Different experimental approaches were applied, such as adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies. The obtained results showed that the interactions of chitosan microspheres with the vitamins were spontaneous, enthalpically and entropically favorable, indicating that the chitosan microspheres can be used with success in the controlled release of these vitamins.

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Abstract

Biodiesel has the advantage of being renewable and clean and for these reasons has been studied recently both academically and in industry. Research in this area is focused on developing new synthetic routes to obtain a purer product or to find new alternative sources of food to replace conventional oils. Papaya biodiesel is obtained from oily residues with a fatty acid composition similar to olive oil. It is generally discarded by the ton, considering that Brazil is the world’s largest producer of papaya with an annual output of 1,811 million tons, productivity of 52 t/hectare and domestic consumption at 86.5%. This study was designed by means of thermal analysis (TG, DSC, P-DSC, and MT-DSC), to verify the possibility of achieving high quality biodiesel, with oxidative stability and flow properties previously indicated by composition analysis of its fatty esters, physical–chemical properties (including oxidative stability) using classical methodology, recommended by ASTM D 6756.

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Biodiesels from beef tallow/soybean oil/babassu oil blends

Correlation between fluid dynamic properties and TMDSC data

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. A. A. Teixeira
,
A. S. Maia
,
I. M. G. Santos
,
A. L. Souza
,
A. G. Souza
, and
N. Queiroz

Abstract

Cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP) of biodiesel samples obtained from blends containing different amounts of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil were investigated by the corresponding conventional techniques and by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The CP and CFPP values correlate well with the crystallization temperature (T onset) obtained from the TMDSC curves, being the highest for the biodiesel sample containing the highest amount of methyl stearate. A correspondence between PP and the peak temperature was also noticed, pointing out that pouring ceases after the crystallization of the heavier fatty acid ester. Among the samples of biodiesel, Bio-3 (highest amount of babassu oil) and Bio-4 (highest amount of soybean oil) showed better cold-flow properties, or in other words, lower values of CP, CFPP, and PP. Independently of the composition, the cold-flow properties of all biodiesel samples meet the requirements from the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels (ANP).

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Abstract

Biodiesel can be obtained from various fatty acid sources. Each raw material has a different chemical composition that leads to different properties. Owing to these properties, the mixture of different proportions of raw materials can lead to biodiesels with best features in relation to physicochemical parameters such as viscosity, oxidative stability and flow properties, generating a fuel whose characteristics meet the requirements of the current legislation of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of biodiesel samples produced from mixtures of beef tallow, babassu oil, and soybean oil. The thermo-oxidative stability was evaluated using thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that all samples were in accordance to the ANP specifications. The biodiesel obtained from a mixture containing 50% of babassu oil had lower values of pour point, cold filter plugging point, and freezing point. This biodiesel also showed a higher thermo-oxidative stability in synthetic air and in oxygen atmospheres.

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