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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Z.L. Li
,
H.Y. Li
,
G. Chen
,
X.J. Liu
,
C.L. Kou
,
S.Z. Ning
,
Z.W. Yuan
,
M. Hao
,
D.C. Liu
, and
L.Q. Zhang

Seven Glu-A1 m allelic variants of the Glu-A1 m x genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1 a , 1Ax2.1 b , 1Ax2.1 c , 1Ax2.1 d , 1Ax2.1 e , 1Ax2.1 f , and 1Ax2.1 g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1 a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1 m x alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1 m x can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.

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Thinopyrum intermedium, which has many useful traits, is valuable for wheat breeding. A new wheat-Thinopyrum addition line, SN100109, was developed from the progeny of common wheat cultivar Yannong 15 and Th. intermedium. It was resistant to most races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt), which caused powdery mildew in wheat, and its reactions were different from the reactions of gene Pm40 and Pm43. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular marker analysis were used to identify the genomic composition of SN100109. GISH results showed that SN100109 was a wheat-Th. intermedium disomic addition line containing one pair of J chromosomes, and the resistance gene was located on the alien additional chromosomes of SN100109. And four molecular markers BE425942, BF482714, Xgdm93 and BV679214 which were assigned to homologous group 2, were specific molecular markers of the additional chromosomes. All the results indicated that SN100109 contained one pair of 2J chromosomes. SN100109 can be used as a novel germplasm source for introducing powdery mildew resistance genes to wheat in breeding programs.

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An efficient and sensitive analytical method based on precolumn derivatization and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry—selected ion monitoring (GC—MS—SIM) was proposed and validated for analysis of two cembrenediols (CBDs) which are α-cembrenediol and β-cembrenediol in tobacco samples. CBDs in tobacco samples were extracted by sonication with 50 mL dichloromethane for 10 min before derivatized with 2:3 (v/v) bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)—pyridine at 20 °C for 100 min. CBDs’ level in tobacco samples was analyzed by GC—MS—SIM and quantified by the internal standard method. The linear range for α-CBD and β-CBD was 13.6–554.6 μg mL−1 and 4.11–162.6 μg mL−1, and the correlation coefficients of both were 0.9998. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of α-cembrenediol and β-cembrenediol were 0.40 μg g−1 and 1.34 μg g−1, and 0.27 μg g−1 and 0.90 μg g−1, respectively. Average recoveries of α-CBD and β-CBD were 94.4–99.9% and 91.9–98.2% while the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were ranged from 2.67 to 5.6% and 2.04 to 4.22%, respectively. This proposed analytical method has been successfully applied to analyze CBDs in tobacco samples.

Open access
Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H.Y. Li
,
Z.L. Li
,
X.X. Zeng
,
L.B. Zhao
,
G. Chen
,
C.L. Kou
,
S.Z. Ning
,
Z.W. Yuan
,
Y.L. Zheng
,
D.C. Liu
, and
L.Q. Zhang

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins associated with bread-making quality in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). Variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is scare. Diploid Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm) is the first cultivated wheat. In the present study, allelic variations at the Glu-A1 m x locus were systematically investigated in 197 T. monococcum ssp. monococcum accessions. Out of the 8 detected Glu-A1 m x alleles, 5 were novel, including Glu-A1 m -b, Glu-A1 m -c, Glu-A1 m -d, Glu-A1 m -g, and Glu-A1 m -h. This diversity is higher than that of common wheat. Compared with 1Ax1 and 1Ax2*, which are present in common wheat, these alleles contained three deletions/insertions as well as some single nucleotide polymorphism variations that might affect the elastic properties of wheat flour. New variations in T. monococcum probably occurred after the divergence between A and Am and are excluded in common wheat populations. These allelic variations could be used as novel resources to further improve wheat quality.

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Abstract  

In terms of pre-safety assessment of a potential site for high-level radioactive wastes disposal in China, the geochemical behavior of key radionuclides which tend to be released from the repository must be thoroughly investigated. 99Tc is a long-lived fission product with appreciable productivity in nuclear fuel, and Tc (+7) has unlimited solubility in near-field geochemical environments. In this study, the effects of ionic strength and humic acid on 99TcO4 sorption and diffusion in Beishan granite were investigated with through-diffusion and batch sorption experiments. Results indicated that the effective diffusion coefficients (D e) of 99TcO4 in Beishan granite varied from 1.07 × 10−12 to 1.28 × 10−12 m2/s without change with ionic strength, while the distribution coefficients (K d) negatively correlated with ionic strength of the rock/water system. This study also indicates that there is no evident influence of humic acid concentration on the diffusion behavior of 99TcO4 in Beishan granite, due to the limited interaction between humic acid and 99TcO4 .

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Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.

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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be a gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this work, we studied the role of H2S in alleviating salinity stress during wheat grain germination (Triticum aestivum L. Yangmai 158). Pretreatment with NaHS, a H2S donor, during wheat grain imbibition, could significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of salinity stress on wheat germination. NaHS-pretreated grain showed higher amylase and esterase activities than water control. NaHS pretreatment differentially stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced NaCl-induced changes in plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips of seedlings compared with water control. We conclude that H2S plays an important role in protecting wheat grain from oxidative damage induced by salinity stress.

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Summary

A reversed-phase chiral liquid chromatographic method had been developed and validated for resolution of the enantiomers of racemic fudosteine. The effects on the separation of the amounts of anhydrous cupric sulfate and l-phenylalanine, the methanol content, mobile phase pH, and temperature were investigated. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, sample recovery, solution stability, and limits of detection (LOD). l-Phenylalanine and anhydrous cupric sulfate as chiral ligand-exchange complexes were used for separation, isomer identification, related substance investigation, and analysis of fudosteine enantiomers in fudosteine bulk drugs and fudosteine tablets.

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A method was developed for the preparative separation of two alkaloids from the crude extract of the radix of Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. in a single run. The two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:2:8, v/v), where triethylamine (40 mmol/L) was added to the upper organic phase as the stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (10 mmol/L) was added to the lower aqueous phase as the mobile phase, was selected for this separation by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography (PZRCCC). For the preparative separation, the apparatus was rotated at a speed 850 rpm, while the mobile phase was pumped into the column at 2 mL/min. As a result, 112 mg of reserpine and 21 mg of yohimbine were obtained from 3 g of crude extract in a single run. The analysis of the isolated compounds was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 230 nm with purities of over 91.0%, and the chemical identification was carried out by the data of electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The technique introduced in this paper is an efficient method for preparative separation of reserpine and yohimbine from devil pepper radix. It will be beneficial to utilize medicinal materials and also useful for the separation, purification, and pharmacological study of Chinese herbal ingredients.

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