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The average mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) population was maximum (2.69, 2.40 and 1.73 adults/plant) on Parthenium hysterophorus at wasteland, in or near field and weeds present near stacks at Muktsar. At Ferozepur, the mean mealy bug population was 1.10 adults/plant on cotton. On the weeds, near or in the field, the maximum population (5.94 adult/plant) was recorded on P. hysterophorus followed by Digeria arvensis (3.74 adults/plant). The population was 2.69, 2.66 and 2.86 adults/plant on Sida acuta, Abutilon theophrasti and Achryanthus aspera, respectively. On wasteland weeds, similar trend was observed, i.e. maximum population was on P. hysterophorus (7.31 adults/plant), while minimum (3.00 adults/plant) on S. acuta, during 2008. Similar trend was followed in 2009 in Muktsar and Ferozepur but the population was lower than the previous year. Among the weeds, P. hysterophorus was the most preferred host for multiplication. During carry-over studies all the stages and ovisac was maximum, followed by detached leaves in Muktsar and in Ferozepur again on P. hysterophorus. In Ludhiana, the maximum population was observed on Hibiscus sp. followed by ratoon cotton crop.

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Polyaniline sorbed with microgram quantity of mercury was prepared and its homogeneity and stability with respect to mercury was evaluated over a period of time. The volatilisation loss of mercury during and after neutron irradiation was studied. It was found that polyaniline was homogeneous and stable with respect to mercury. No loss of mercury from polyaniline was observed during and after neutron irradiation. Thus polyaniline sorbed with mercury can serve as a good standard for neutron activation analysis of mercury.

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The thermal decomposition of unirradiated and -irradiated lead nitrate was studied by the gas evolution method. The decomposition proceeds through initial gas evolution, a short induction period, an acceleratory stage and a decay stage. The acceleratory and decay stages follow the Avrami-Erofeyev equation. Irradiation enhances the decomposition but does not affect the shape of the decomposition curve.

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Rheum emodi is an important medicinal plant widely used in the Unani system of medicine. A simple, precise and convenient HPTLC method has been developed for analysis of chrysophanol, an antioxidant and a major constituent of the rhizomes of Rheum emodi (Polygonacea) and pharmaceutical formulations of these. This method uses chrysophanol as internal standard. The stationary phase was silica gel 60F 254 , and hexane-ethyl acetate, 45 + 5 ( v/v ) was used as mobile phase. Detection and quantification were performed densitometrically at λ max = 366 nm. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and linearity over a wide concentration range. The results obtained were evaluated statistically.

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The understanding of the bio-geochemical behavior of the uranium radionuclides in the environmental matrices is crucial for the health safety point of view. The research was carried out in munitions testing sites New Golloway (SW) of Scotland at the Dunderann firing range which is contaminated with depleted uranium and site is particularly important because it provides a controlled environment for the investigation of post depositional association of Depleted Uranium (DU) in contaminated soils. This study used the modified BCR sequential extraction method to investigates the association of DU in at the different sampling location and in a control soil and were followed by elemental analysis using inductively coupled-optical Emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).The Certified Reference Material (CRM) were used for the validation of the concentration. The concentrations of (Bureau of Reference) BCR-extracted Uranium (U) were in the range of 4–40 (±13.2) mg kg−1 for the DU-contaminated sites whilst U was barely detectable in the soil from the control site (Rebury Gun) RGW. With the exception of RGH and RGW, the values for BCR-extracted U compared well with those obtained using Aqaua-regia. The obtained result showed that the maximum Uranium deposition is at RGE and it is 20 mg kg−1 before hitting the target, the 6 mg kg−1 at RGH and minimum is at RGG and RGW control site.

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2-Ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC-88A) and Tributylphosphate (TBP) extractants have been attached to polypropylene (PP) in granular, film and non-woven fabric forms, by a simultaneous γ-ray irradiation method. The extraction of plutonium from the acidic radioactive liquid waste by modified polymers was studied by varying the γ-ray dose. The uptake of plutonium was also studied by polyethylene (PE) in film form. This modified polymer also showed extraction capability for plutonium from nitric acid medium. The uptake of plutonium depends upon the γ-ray dose as well as the nature and source of the polymer. Liquid–solid extraction studies showed that the equivalent amount of uptake of plutonium on TBP–polyethylene film requires twice the γ-ray dose as compare to TBP–polypropylene film. It was observed that at given γ-ray dose polypropylene fabric is not sturdy, compare to the granules and films, and material leach out in aqueous phase. The presence of other solvents like di-methyl formamide (DMF) and cyclohexane during γ-ray irradiation were able to enhance the extraction capabilities. The optimum conditions established during this study was successfully applied for the separation of plutonium, uranium and thorium from the fission products in acidic waste solution.

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Molecular detection of Cucumber mosaic virus in various chrysanthemum cultivars was attempted by RT-PCR and Southern hybridization tests using CMV specific primers and cloned probes, respectively. A pair of primers was designed from a conserved region of the Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CMV-CP) gene, capable of amplifying a product of ~650 bp from various CMV strains. RT-PCR using the total nucleic acid from infected leaf samples and the specific primers resulted in positive amplification of an expected size band of ~650 bp in most of the samples. The identity of the PCR amplicons was checked by Southern hybridization using the a32P-labelled DNA probes prepared from the cloned coat protein gene of a well-identified strain of CMV isolated from Amaranthus. Positive signal of hybridization of PCR products and CMV probes confirmed the identity of fected chrysanthemum samples.

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Abstract

In [1] Kohli and Vashistha gave an analogue of probabilistic version of Pant‘s Theorem ([2], Theorem 1). We note that mappings defined in Examples 3.6 to 3.8 of [1] are not self maps as claimed in the Definitions 3.1 and 3.2. In this context, we provide some relevant examples to complete the interesting results.

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