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Abstract  

Over 90% of the cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) produced in the world is applied in the production of phenol and acetone. The additional applications were used as a catalyst, a curing agent, and as an initiator for polymerization. Many previous studies from open literature have verified and employed various aspects of the thermal decomposition and thermokinetics of CHP reactions. An isothermal microcalorimeter (thermal activity monitor III, TAM III), and a thermal dynamic calorimetry (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) were used to resolve the exothermic behaviors, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat power, heat of decomposition (ΔH d), self-heating rate, peak temperature of reaction system, time to maximum rate (TMR), etc. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was used to analyze the CHP products with its derivatives at 150 °C. This study will assess and validate the thermal hazards of CHP and incompatible reactions of CHP mixed with its derivatives, such as acetonphenone (AP), and dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC), that are essential to process safety design.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Lu Li
,
Dan-Dan Xu
,
Jing-Xin Chai
,
Di Wang
,
Lin Li
,
Ling Zhang
,
Li Lu
,
Chee H. Ng
,
Gabor S. Ungvari
,
Song-Li Mei
, and
Yu-Tao Xiang

Background and aims

Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is common in university students. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of IAD in Chinese university students, but the results have been inconsistent. This is a meta-analysis of the prevalence of IAD and its associated factors in Chinese university students.

Methods

Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase) and Chinese (Wan Fang Database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases were systematically and independently searched from their inception until January 16, 2017.

Results

Altogether 70 studies covering 122,454 university students were included in the meta-analysis. Using the random-effects model, the pooled overall prevalence of IAD was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.1%–12.5%). When using the 8-item Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 10-item modified Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 20-item Internet Addiction Test, and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the pooled prevalence of IAD was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.7%–10.4%), 9.3% (95% CI: 7.6%–11.4%), 11.2% (95% CI: 8.8%–14.3%), and 14.0% (95% CI: 10.6%–18.4%), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled prevalence of IAD was significantly associated with the measurement instrument (Q = 9.41, p = .024). Male gender, higher grade, and urban abode were also significantly associated with IAD. The prevalence of IAD was also higher in eastern and central of China than in its northern and western regions (10.7% vs. 8.1%, Q = 4.90, p = .027).

Conclusions

IAD is common among Chinese university students. Appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of IAD in this population need greater attention.

Open access

Abstract  

Effects of fullerenes including FS, EFS and pure C60 on thermal behaviors of polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been studied by employing thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and off-line furnace-type pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The products were collected by Cambridge filter pad which was widely used in analyzing the combustion products of cigarette. The results showed that the addition of fullerenes obviously restrained the thermal decomposition of PEG. The initial decomposition temperatures (IDT) and maximum decomposition peak temperatures (MDT) were evidently postponed by the addition of fullerenes. Pyrolysis products with one or two hydroxyl end groups obviously increased with the addition of 10% C60. The reasons of the changes were discussed from the aspects of reaction mechanisms.

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Global rice supplies have been found contaminated with unapproved varieties of genetically modified (GM) rice in recent years, which has led to product recalls in several of countries. Faster and more effective detection of GM contamination can prevent adulterated food, feed and seed from being consumed and grown, minimize the potential environmental, health or economic damage. In this study, a simple, reliable and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying genetic modifications of TT51-1, Kemingdao1 (KMD1) and Kefeng6 (KF6) rice was developed by using the event-specific fragment. The limit of detection (LOD) for each event in the multiplex PCR is approximately 0.1%. Developed multiplex PCR assays can provide a rapid and simultaneous detection of GM rice.

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Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks., is a major disease that causes substantial losses to wheat production worldwide. The utilization of effective resistance genes in wheat cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. To study the inheritance of all-stage resistance in spring wheat cultivars Louise, WA008016, Express, Solano, Alturas and Zak from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, the six cultivars were crossed with the Chinese susceptible variety Taichung 29. Single-spore isolates of CYR32 and CYR33, the predominant Chinese races of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, were used to evaluate F1, F2 and BC1 generations for stripe rust resistance under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genetic analysis determined that Louise had one dominant resistance gene to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrLou. WA008016 had two dominant and one recessive resistance genes to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrWA1, YrWA2 and YrWA3, respectively. Express had a single recessive gene that conferred resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrExp3. The two independent dominant genes in Solano conferring resistance to CYR32 were temporarily designated as YrSol1 and YrSol2. Alturas had two recessive genes for resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrAlt1 and YrAlt2. Zak has one dominant gene for resistance to CYR33, temporarily designated as YrZak1. These six cultivars can be important resistance sources in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
K. Inn
,
E. Hall
,
J. Woodward
,
B. Stewart
,
R. Pollanen
,
L. Selvig
,
S. Turner
,
I. Outola
,
S. Nour
,
H. Kurosaki
,
J. LaRosa
,
M. Schultz
,
Z. Lin
,
Z. Yu
, and
C. McMahon

Abstract  

Recoil ions from alpha-particle emission can contaminate surface-barrier detection systems. This contamination results in increased measurement uncertainty, and may require the replacement of expensive detectors. Disposable thin Collodion films are easily prepared and effectively retard the recoil ions when either directly applied to the surface of alpha-sources or as catcher foils between the source and the detector. The thin films are particularly effective for relatively low-level sources, but can sustain structural damage when exposed to high levels of recoil ions (tens of thousands per second) over extended periods of time.

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Summary  

As a follow up to the initial 1998 intercomparison study, a second study was initiated in 2001 as part of the ongoing evaluation of the capabilities of various ultra-sensitive methods to analyze 239Pu in urine samples. The initial study1 was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of International Health Programs to evaluate and validate new technologies that may supersede the existing fission tract analysis (FTA) method for the analysis of 239Pu in urine at the µBq/l level. The ultra-sensitive techniques evaluated in the second study included accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by LLNL, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by LANL and FTA by the University of Utah. Only the results for the mass spectrometric methods will be presented. For the second study, the testing levels were approximately 4, 9, 29 and 56 µBq of 239Pu per liter of synthetic urine. Each test sample also contained 240Pu at a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ~0.15 and natural uranium at a concentration of 50 µBq/ml. From the results of the two studies, it can be inferred that the best performance at the µBq level is more laboratory specific than method specific. The second study demonstrated that LANL-TIMS and LLNL-AMS had essentially the same quantification level for both isotopes. Study results for bias and precision and acceptable performance compared to ANSI N13.30 and ANSI N42.22 have been compiled.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J.J. Lin
,
Q.H. Meng
,
Z.F. Wu
,
S.Y. Pei
,
P. Tian
,
X. Huang
,
Z.Q. Qiu
,
H.J. Chang
,
C.Y. Ni
,
Y.Q. Huang
, and
Y. Li

Abstract

This paper explores the prediction of the soluble solid content (SSC) in the visible and near-infrared (400–1,000 nm) regions of Baise mango. Hyperspectral images of Baise mangoes with wavelengths of 400–1,000 nm were obtained using a hyperspectral imaging system. Multiple scatter correction (MSC) was chosen to remove the effect of noise on the accuracy of the partial least squares (PLS) regression model. On this basis, the characteristic wavelengths of mango SSC were selected using the competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), genetic algorithm (GA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE), and combined CARS + GA-SPA, CARS + UVE-SPA, and GA + UVE-SPA characteristic wavelength methods. The results show that the combined MSC-CARS + GA-SPA-PLS algorithm can reduce redundant information and improve the computational efficiency, so it is an effective method to predict the SSC of mangoes.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H.Q. Zhao
,
L. Wang
,
J. Hong
,
X.Y. Zhao
,
X.H. Yu
,
L. Sheng
,
C.Z. Hang
,
Y. Zhao
,
A.A. Lin
,
W.H. Si
, and
F.S. Hong

Salt stress impaired Mn imbalance and resulted in accumulation of ROS, and caused oxidative stress to plants. However, very little is known about the oxidative damage of maize roots caused by exposure to a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation. Thus the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of salt stress and Mn deprivation on antioxidative defense system in maize roots. Maize plants were cultivated in Hoagland’s media. They were subjected to 80 mM NaCl administered in the Mn-present Hoagland’s or Mn-deficient Hoagland’s media for 14 days. The findings indicated that the growth and root activity of maize seedlings cultivated in a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation were significantly inhibited; the compatible solute accumulation, malondialdehyde, carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and ROS were higher than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation as expected. Nevertheless, the antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and thiol were lower than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation. In view of the fact that salt stress impaired Mn nutrition of maize seedlings, the findings suggested that Mn deprivation at the cellular level may be a contributory factor to salt-induced oxidative stress and related oxidative damage of maize roots.

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