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  • Author or Editor: V. Manchanda x
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Abstract  

Several adducts of U(IV) and Th(IV) with 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-7,7-dimethyl-4,6-octanedione (FOD) as -diketone and a variety of neutral oxodonors were synthesized and characterized by visible spectral, proton magnetic resonance as well as thermogravimetric studies. Adducts with dimethylformamide (DMF) were found to be most volatile, whereas with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) were quite susceptible towards decomposition.

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Abstract  

This paper describes the development of a separation method for americium from the effluents emanating from anion exchange column, used for the recovery of plutonium from analytical waste solutions. The waste contained uranium, sodium, calcium and iron as the major impurities as estimated by ICP-AES method. ~99% pure americium was obtained by three separation steps using solvent extraction and extraction chromatography techniques. In the first step, uranium was quantitatively separated by giving five contacts of equal volumes of 30% TBP in n-dodecane. Fe and Na were separated in the next step using 0.1 M TODGA + 0.5 M DHOA as the extractant. In the last step, Am was separated from the co-extracted Ca (about 76%) using CMPO loaded extraction chromatographic column. The overall recovery was >80% with decontamination factor (D.F.) from the impurities being >3000 while the purity of the product was 99%.

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Abstract  

Americium is an important actinide element having versatile applications based on its alpha and gamma emissions. Multi-element determination of radioactive samples using ICP-AES technique may be affected by the presence of americium due to its rich emission spectra. With a view to characterize plutonium based fuels containing americium for trace metals by ICP-AES technique accurately, a high purity 241Am (using a separation procedure developed in our laboratory) was prepared. To ascertain its chemical purity it is essential to determine its impurity contents accurately. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), being a sensitive multi-elemental technique, was employed to determine the concentrations of impurities in purified 241Am. Detection limits for the common elements and rare earth elements have also been determined. Comparison is made with the analytical data obtained by the ICP-AES method.

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Abstract  

The extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid medium is investigated using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid-mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A in dimeric form, H2A2) as extractant either alone or in combination with neutral extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), and dioctyl sulfoxide (DOSO). The effects of different experimental parameters such as aqueous phase acidity (up to 10 M HNO3), nature of diluent [xylene, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), n-dodecane and methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK)] and of temperature (303–333 K) on the extraction behavior of uranium were investigated. Synergistic extraction of uranium was observed between 0.5 and 6 M HNO3. Use of MIBK as diluent was also studied. Temperature variation studies using PC88A as extractant showed exothermic nature of extraction process. Studies were carried out to optimize the conditions for the recovery of uranium from the raffinate generated during the purification of uranium from nitric acid medium. Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were employed for analysis of uranium in equilibrated samples.

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Abstract  

Extraction behaviour of actinides, lanthanides, fission products and structural elements has been studied with the two diglycolamide extractants, namely N,N,N′,N′-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) and N,N,N′,N′-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA). The acid extraction studies suggested that T2EHDGA (KH: 1.8) is less basic as compared to its linear homologue, TODGA (KH: 4.1). The distribution ratio of Am(III) by 0.1 M diglycolamides followed the order: TODGA > T2EHDGA. The number of ligand molecules present in the stoichiometry of the extracted species of Am(III) was found to be three and four for T2EHDGA and TODGA, respectively. Thermodynamics studies suggested that the extraction of Am(III) by both the extractants is exothermic in nature. The radiolytic stability of TODGA and T2EHDGA solutions in n-dodecane has been investigated. Due to lower distribution ratio of Am by T2EHDGA, 0.2 M of its solution has been used as compared to 0.1 M solution of TODGA. The distribution behaviour of various metal ions, viz. Am, Nd, Fe, Mo, Cr, Sr and Cs has been studied from nitric acid as well as from simulated high level waste solution.

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Abstract  

An emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) containing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier extractant and SPAN 80 as the surfactant was used to pre-concentrate Am3+ from dilute acid solutions. Effects of various factors such as: external phase pH, internal phase conditions, equilibration time, D2EHPA concentration, SPAN 80 concentration, etc. on Am3+ mass transfer were investigated. Emulsion was broken by the addition of solvents such as acetone and the actual mass transfer obtained after breaking the emulsion agreed well with that obtained by the difference method.

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Abstract  

Nuclear analytical techniques namely fission track technique using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been standardized and applied for quantification of low uranium concentrations in liquid samples such as feed, elute and brine and solid sorbent samples respectively. The quantification of uranium is required for its recovery study from seawater, which is one of the potential sources of uranium. The uranium concentration of a liquid sample obtained by SSNTD method was compared with the other well established conventional techniques like ICP-MS, ICP-AES, adsorptive stripping voltametry and alpha spectrometry. INAA was applied for uranium concentration determination in the radiation grafted polyamidoxime sorbent samples.

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Abstract  

Sorption of technetium on hematite colloids, at varying pH (3–10), has been studied in absence and presence of humic acid using 95mTc-96Tc radiotracers. Technetium was found to be weakly sorbed on hematite at lower pH (<5) values, while no sorption was observed at higher pH values. Humic acid was found to have no effect on the sorption of technetium on hematite under aerobic conditions, while at lower pH values small reduction was observed which was attributed to the reduced zeta potential of the hematite colloids owing to the strong sorption of humic acid.

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Summary  

Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP) in xylene as extractant. The conditions for quantitative extraction were determined by the variation of ligand, oxalic acid and nitric acid concentration. Quantitative stripping was achieved using a mixture of 0.4M oxalic acid and 0.4M ammonium oxalate. Extraction of Pu(IV) from synthetic oxalate supernatant solution containing 3M nitric acid and 0.2M oxalic acid was investigated under various loading conditions employing 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone in xylene as extractant. Under uranium loading conditions the Pu extraction decreased significantly while with increased Pu loading whereas the D Pu value was influenced marginally. The effect of a redox reagent on Pu extraction was also investigated.

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Abstract  

The efficiency of immobilized moss as a bio-sorbent for the removal of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides from actual low-level radioactive waste (LLW) solutions was investigated. Preliminary batch experiments with the moss (Funaria hygrometrica) for the sorption of Cs and Sr have shown a pH dependent binding trend from pH 1–13, with maximum binding between pH 5–10. Time dependence of the batch studies showed that a contact time of 30 minutes was sufficient to reach equilibrium. Column experiments for the sorption of Cs and Sr by moss after immobilizing in polymer silica matrix demonstrated that the sorbent is capable of removing considerable amounts of Cs and Sr from actual LLW solutions under constant flow conditions. The adsorption capacity was estimated to be 8.5 mg/g for Cs and 15 mg/g for Sr. These sorbed metal ions from the column could be leached out using 0.20M nitric acid. The regenerated sorbent exhibited relatively the same initial binding capacity of both Cs and Sr even after 3 cycles of reuse.

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