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  • Author or Editor: A. Garg x
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Abstract  

Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431 a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb, and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical solvent extraction method has been developed for the determination of Cr(III) using51Cr tracer. It is based on the complexation of Cr(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and acetylacetone as mixed ligands at pH 3.8 and extraction in chloroform. Effect of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, nature of solvent, quantitative nature, effect of diverse ions has been studied. The method can be used up to 200 ng of Cr.

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Abstract  

Fast neutron-activation methods have been developed for the determination of iron and silicon in USGS and Indian standards and bauxites. Nuclear reactions56Fe/n, p/56Mn and28Si/n, p/28Al were carried out using241Am-Be neutron source and cutting off thermal neutrons with a Cd shield. For Si a cyclic method was adopted due to short half life of28Al /2.3 min/. The methods are non destructive, fast, economic and ideal for bulk analysis of rocks and process control.

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Abstract  

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been employed for the multielemental determination of an IAEA intercomparison standard Hay Powder, V-10 and some edible plant leaves consumed in India. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons at a flux 1012 n·cm–2·s–1 in a reactor for 5 minutes, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 hours and counted by high resolution -ray spectrometry. Nearly 18 elements have been determined. Good agreement is observed for most of the elements in several NBS standards and the proposed CRM V-10. Some edible vegetable plant leaves have also been analyzed.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical solvent extraction method has been developed for the micro determination of Mo/VI/ using99Mo tracer. It involves removal of99mTc by ethyl methyl ketone /EMK/ and extraction of Mo with tri-n-butyl phosphate /TBP/ from 5M HCl. Different parameters affecting the extraction such as pH dependence, nature of solvent and interferences due to other radionuclides have been studied. The method can be used up to 2 g of Mo.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical solvent extraction method has been developed for the determination of Mn(II) using54Mn tracer. Mn(II) is complexed with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) at pH 8.5 and extracted in isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK). Different parameters affecting the extraction, and interferences due to diverse ions have been studied. The method can be used for the determination of Mn in microgram amounts.

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Abstract  

Phosphorus has been determined using the - emitter32P by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in several NBS and IAEA standards and samples of biological origin such as human and animal blood, cancerous tissue, edible plant leaves, diets, milk samples, etc. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 2–10 h in a reactor followed by --counting on an end-window gas flow proportional counter using an aluminium filter. The results are within ±10% of the certified values in most cases.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical method for the determination of gold using198Au, has been developed. It is based on the synergistic extraction of Au(III) with thionalide (TA) in ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) or isobuthyl methyl ketone (IBMK) at pH 5.0.Effect of various parameters such as pH, nature of solvent and interferences due to other radionuclides have been studied. The method can be used up to 25 ng of Au.

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Abstract  

The process of urbanization and industrialization during las two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin.

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Abstract  

Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1–2 μg/g), Rb (10–40 μg/g), Cs (80–300 ng/g), Se (∼100 ng/g) and Zn (25–60 μg/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r = 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2 ± 1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 μg/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ∼5 μg/g and <10 μg/g, respectively.

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