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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Á. Hegyi
,
B. Urbányi
,
M. Kovács
,
K. Lefler
,
J. Gál
,
Gy. Hoitsy
, and
Á. Horváth

The transportation of rainbow trout in the presence of the anesthetic clove oil was investigated. Before the transportation tests, an acute experiment was conducted to verify that removal of the fish from the water for one minute does not significantly increase the glucose or cortisol concentration of the blood plasma. In the main experiment two different transportation conditions were compared: transport in water only and in water with anesthetic. During transportation without addition of clove oil, blood plasma glucose and cortisol concentrations changed significantly. The concentration of glucose increased from 4.92 mmol/L prior to transportation to 6.16 mmol/L and values similar to the initial ones (4.95 mmol/L) were observed 5 hours after transportation. Concentration of the stress hormone cortisol increased from the initial 37.2 ng/mL to 89.2 ng/mL and returned to a value of 36.1 ng/mL 3 hours post transportation. Respective values of glucose concentration have not changed significantly during transportation in the presence of clove oil (4.3; 4.4; 4.4 mmol/L), whereas those of cortisol showed a slight decrease with the passing of time (28.1; 26.7; 20.18 ng/mL). Results show that transportation stress can significantly be reduced by the use of anesthetics.

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Exercise-caused metabolic changes can be followed by monitoring exhaled volatiles; however it has not been previously reported if a spectrum of exhaled gases is modified after physical challenge. We have hypothesized that changes in volatile molecules assessed by an electronic nose may be the reason for the alkalization of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid following physical exercise.Ten healthy young subjects performed a 6-minute running test. Exhaled breath samples pre-exercise and post-exercise (0 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min) were collected for volatile pattern (“smellprint”) determination and pH measurements (at 5.33 kPa CO2), respectively. Exhaled breath smellprints were analyzed using principal component analysis and were related to EBC pH.Smellprints (p=0.04) and EBC pH (p=0.01) were altered during exercise challenge. Compared to pre-exercise values, smellprints and pH differed at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min following exercise (p<0.05), while no difference was found at 0 min post-exercise. In addition, a significant correlation was found between volatile pattern of exhaled breath and EBC pH (p=0.01, r=−0.34).Physical exercise changes the pattern of exhaled volatiles together with an increase in pH of breath. Changes in volatiles may be responsible for increase in EBC pH.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Lukács
,
B. Magyari
,
L. Tóth
,
Zs. Petrási
,
I. Repa
,
A. Koller
, and
Iván Horváth

There are several experimental models for the in vivo investigation of myocardial infarction (MI) in small (mouse, rat) and large animals (dog, pig, sheep and baboons). The application of large animal models raises ethical concerns, the design of experiments needs longer follow-up times, requiring proper breeding and housing conditions, therefore resulting in higher cost, than in vitro or small animal studies. On the other hand, the relevance of large animal models is very important, since they mostly resemble to human physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first main difference among MI models is the method of induction (open or closed chest, e.g. surgical or catheter based); the second main difference is the presence or absence of reperfusion. The former (i.e. reperfused MI) allows the investigation of reperfusion injury and new catheter based techniques during percutaneous coronary interventions, while the latter (i.e. nonreperfused MI) serves as a traditional coronary occlusion model, to test the effects of new pharmacological agents and biological therapies, as cell therapy. The reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction has different outcomes, regarding left ventricular function, remodelling, subsequent heart failure, aneurysm formation and mortality. Our aim was to review the literature and report our findings regarding experimental MI models, regarding the differences among species, methods, reproducibility and interpretation.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Kiss
,
G. Kazinczi
,
J. Horváth
,
S. Kobza
,
T. Baranyi
,
M. Varga
,
B. Havasréti
, and
A. Fehér

Viruses caused severe yield losses of field cucumber in Hungary last years. Field surveys have been carried out on field cucumber to evaluate virus infection in the region of Gyor-Moson-Sopron county. Virus infection was determined on the basis of symptoms, biotest and with DAS-ELISA serological method for the presence of 15 viruses. The virus vector aphid flight was monitored by Moericke yellow water pan. On the basis of field surveys 100% virus infection has been observed in cucum­ber fields. Virus symptoms were various, depending on varieties, environ­men­tal factors, viruses and strains. Out of the viruses investigated only three [Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) (DTL serotype); Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus (WMV-2)] have been occurred on cucumber samples. Biological tests confirm­ed the results of DAS-ELISA. There was much difference, regarding the frequency of viruses. ZYMV was dominant in 1998, while CMV was dominant in 1999. The proportion of the complex infection was very high. Till now, besides CMV other viruses cannot be detected from weeds in cucumber ecosystems. The peak of aphid flight was in the middle of June and later a secondary peak was observed at the beginning of July, which coincided with the appearance of the first virus symptoms. Regarding, that cucumber production occurs in fields at the same place year by year, soil borne virus vectors may play important role in virus infection. To reduce virus infection we can suggest using of light summer oils, which prevents virus transmission by aphids. It is concluded that team work of virologists, pathologists, growers, technologists and the breeders is necessary to solve virus problems of field cucumber in Hungary.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Horváth
,
M. Petrekanits
,
I. Györe
,
Zs Kneffel
,
B. Varga-Pintér
, and
Gábor Pavlik

In the authors’ earlier study the relative aerobic power of Hungarian top-level male water polo players was found to be smaller than that of other top-level athletes, while their echocardiographic parameters proved to be the most characteristic of the athlete’s heart. In the present investigation echocardiographic and spiroergometric data of female top-level water polo players were compared to those of other female elite athletes and of healthy, non-athletic subjects. Relative aerobic power in the water polo players was lower than in endurance athletes. Mean resting heart rates were the slowest in the water polo players and endurance athletes. Morphologic indicators of the heart (body size related left ventricular wall thickness and muscle mass) were the highest in the water polo players, endurance and power athletes. In respect of diastolic functions (diastolic early and late peak transmitral flow velocities) no difference was seen between the respective groups.These results indicate that, similarly to the males, top-level water polo training is associated with the dimensional parameters of the heart rather than with relative aerobic power. For checking the physical condition of female water polo players spiroergometric tests seem to be less appropriate than swim-tests with heart rate recovery studies such as the ones used in the males.

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The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.

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Soil fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide were determined for grasslands on sandy, loess and clay soils in Hungary. As the direction of methane flux (emission or uptake) depends on the soil characteristics bi-directional fluxes were observed. For sandy and loess grasslands the sink and source processes are practically balanced showing a negligible low mean methane flux for 2006–2007 (−0.04–0.05 kg CH 4 ha −1 yr −1 ). In this period the clay grassland functioned as a weak sink for methane (−0.34 kg CH 4 ha −1 yr −1 ). Average soil nitrous oxide emission fluxes for the period of 2002–2006 was 0.5 kg N ha −1 yr −1 for sandy and loess while 0.2 kg N ha −1 yr −1 for clay grassland, respectively, with substantial inter-annual variations. Taking into account the total atmospheric N-input 0 to 8 per cent of deposited nitrogen is emitted from the soils in the form of N 2 O as the intermediate product of soil denitrification processes.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Németh
,
B. Jakab
,
R. Józsa
,
T. Hollósy
,
A. Tamás
,
A. Lubics
,
I. Lengvári
,
P. Kiss
,
Zs. Oberritter
,
B. Horváth
,
Z. Szilvássy
, and
D. Reglődi

Abstract  

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has two molecular forms with 38 and 27 amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to develop a new, highly specific PACAP-27 assay to investigate the quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 in the central nervous system of various vertebrate species applying the same technical and experimental conditions. Our results show that the antiserum used turned to be PACAP-27 specific. The average ID50 value was 51.5±3.6 fmol/ml and the detection limit was 2 fmol/ml. PACAP-27 immunoreactivity was present in the examined brain areas, with highest concentration in the rat diencephalon and telencephalon. Swine and pigeon brain also contained significant amount of PACAP-27. Our results confirm the previously described data showing that PACAP-38 is the dominant form of PACAP in vertebrates, since PACAP-38 levels exceeded those of PACAP-27 in all examined brain areas. Furthermore, our study describes for the first time, the comparative quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 and-38 in the swine and pigeon brain.

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Physiology International
Authors:
D. Gerszi
,
Á. Penyige
,
Z. Mezei
,
B. Sárai-Szabó
,
R. Benkő
,
B. Bányai
,
C. Demendi
,
E. Ujvári
,
S. Várbíró
, and
E.M. Horváth

Abstract

Introduction

Increased oxidative/nitrative stress is characteristic not only in pathologic, but also in healthy pregnancy. High uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) at the end of the first trimester is associated with altered placentation and elevated risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to examine the relationship of systemic oxidative/nitrative stress and uterine artery pulsatility index in the first trimester and their correlation to pregnancy outcomes.

Material and methods

Healthy pregnant women were recruited at 12–13th gestational week ultrasound examination; UtAPI was determined by color Doppler ultrasound. Patients were divided into high (UtAPI ≥ 2.3) (n = 30) and low (n = 31) resistance groups, and pregnancies were followed until labor. Systemic oxidative/nitrative stress was estimated by measuring total peroxide level, total antioxidant capacity and nitrotyrosine level.

Results

Plasma total peroxide level was significantly lower (2,510 ± 39 µM vs. 2,285 ± 59 µM), total antioxidant capacity was higher (781 ± 16 mM CRE vs. 822 ± 13 mM CRE) in the high UtAPI group, which were accompanied by lower birth weight (3,317 ± 64 vs. 3,517 ± 77 g, P < 0.05). Plasma total peroxide level showed a negative correlation (by Pearson) to UtAPI (P < 0.01) and positive correlation to birth weight (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

According to our results, lower systemic oxidative stress showed correlation with high UtAPI measured between the 12–13th weeks of gestation. We also found significant differences in the birth weight of healthy newborns; therefore it is worth examining this relationship in pathological pregnancies.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Török
,
T. Miglécz
,
O. Valkó
,
K. Tóth
,
A. Kelemen
,
Á.-J. Albert
,
G. Matus
,
A. Molnár V
,
E. Ruprecht
,
L. Papp
,
B. Deák
,
O. Horváth
,
A. Takács
,
B. Hüse
, and
B. Tóthmérész

In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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