In the microflora of sunflower seeds stored in domestic stores the,
species dominate, while those of
Penicillium, Trichoderma, Stemphylium
spp. are present in lower numbers. During model tests (cca 20% seed moisture content, 25 °C, 4 weeks storage) the
species were almost completely eliminated and on the seeds mainly
species, characteristic of stores, propagated. The moulds significantly deteriorated the quality of the seed and that of the produced oil and meal (reproductive ability, germinating power, oil content, lipoxygenase enzyme activity, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, UV absorbance, colour, sensorial properties, as well as the protein content, amino acid composition, colour and the smell of the meal), but no aflatoxin production occurred. The findings offer a comprehensive picture on the multiple destructive effects of incorrect storage.
Az utóbbi években megerősítést nyert a fizikai teljesítmény jelentős mértékű genetikai meghatározottsága. Emellett a sportoláshoz köthető sérülésekre és betegségekre való genetikai hajlamról is egyre nagyobb ismeretanyag áll rendelkezésünkre. A teljesítményt befolyásoló génpolimorfizmusok vizsgálata lehetőséget kínál a sportági kiválasztási rendszer fejlesztésére. A sportoló genetikai profiljának ismerete a jövőben lehetővé teszi a személyre szabott edzésprogram kidolgozását és ezáltal a teljesítmény potenciális növelését. A genetikai tesztek a jövőben fontos szerepet játszhatnak a sérülések és a betegségek genetikai kockázati tényezőinek szűrésében is. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1247–1255.
Thermobifidas are thermophilic, aerobic, lignocellulose decomposing actinomycetes. The Thermobifida genus includes four species: T. fusca, T. alba, T. cellulosilytica, and T. halotolerans. T. fusca YX is the far best characterized strain of this taxon and several cellulases and hemicellulases have been cloned from it for industrial purposes targeting paper industry, biofuel, and feed applications. Unfortunately, sequence data of such enzymes are almost exclusively restricted to this single species; however, we demonstrated earlier by zymography that other T. alba and T. cellulosilytica strains encode the same enzyme sets. Recently, the advances in whole genome sequencing by the use of next generation genomics platforms accelerated the selection process of valuable hydrolases from uncharacterized bacterial species for cloning purposes. For this purpose T. cellulosilytica TB100T type strain was chosen for de novo genome sequencing. We have assembled the genome of T. cellulosilytica strain TB100T into 168 contigs and 19 scaffolds, with reference length of 4 327 869 bps, 3 589 putative coding sequences, 53 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. The analysis of the annotated genome revealed the existence of 27 putative hydrolases belonging to 14 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. The investigation of identified, cloned, and heterologously multiple cellulases, mannanases, xylanases, and amylases may result in industrial applications beside gaining useful basic research related information.
The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC) is a key structure of the central glucose-monitoring (GM) neural network. Previous studies indicate that intracerebral streptozotocin (STZ) microinjection-induced destruction of local chemosensory neurons results in feeding and metabolic alterations. The present experiments aimed to examine whether STZ microinjection into the mdPFC causes metabolic deficits. To do so, glucose tolerance test (GTT) and measurements of plasma metabolites were performed in STZ-treated or control rats. Intraperitoneal D-glucose load was delivered 20 min or 4 weeks following the intracerebral microinjection of STZ or saline (acute or subacute GTT, respectively). The STZ-treated rats displayed acute glucose intolerance: at the 120th min of the test, blood glucose level of these rats was significantly higher than that of the ones in the control group. When determining the plasma level of various metabolites, 30 min following the intracerebral STZ or saline microinjection, the triglyceride concentration of the STZ-treated rats was found to be reduced compared with that of the control rats. The GM neurons of the mdPFC are suggested to be involved in the organization of complex metabolic processes by which these chemosensory cells contribute to adaptive control mechanisms of the maintenance of homeostasis.
Urban areas have been growing radically worldwide, causing considerable changes in biodiversity of natural habitats. In floodplain forests, we studied the effects of urbanization on ground-dwelling spider assemblages along a rural–suburban–urban gradient in Hungary. We tested three traditional hypotheses (intermediate disturbance hypothesis, habitat specialist hypothesis and hygrophilous species hypothesis) and two novel expectations (shade-preferring species hypothesis, and disturbance sensitive species hypothesis) on spiders. We found that the total number of species was higher in the suburban habitat than in rural and urban ones, supporting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. We found a decrease in the species richness of forest specialist and shade-preferring species along the urbanization gradient. We found that the number of hygrophilous and disturbance sensitive species was the lowest in the urban habitat. The spider assemblages of the rural and suburban habitats were clearly separated from the assemblages of urban habitats. Based on our findings we emphasize that low and moderate intensity of forest management contributes to the preservation of the local species richness in floodplain forests.
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.
The lack of data regarding dietary and lifestyle habits of Hungarian university students prompted us to undertake a cross-sectional pilot study of students of Semmelweis University, Budapest. A total of 264 students (78 males with mean age of 21.4±2.6 y and 186 females with a mean age of 21.2±2.6 y) were involved in the study. The questionnaires contained inquiries of energy and nutrient intake, use of vitamin and mineral supplements, food frequency, meal frequency and physical activity. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS for Windows 9.0. The energy, protein and fat intake was somewhat higher than the Hungarian Recommended Dietary Allowances (HRDA) (BIRÓ & LINDNER, 1999). Sodium intake was alarmingly high. Vitamin D consumption was inadequate. The intake of the members of vitamin B group with exception of B12 and niacin was insufficient. The daily consumption of milk, dairy products, fruits and vegetables was deficient. The meal pattern was unbalanced. Only 66% of males and 52% of females were involved in a regular physical activity. Our results suggest that nutrition should be introduced into the medical curriculum as a separate and full-fledged course of study.
By means of simultaneous DTA-, TG- and DTG-technique, the silicate gels and the MFI crystals obtained from these gels have been investigated. The gels have been prepared in presence and in absence of tetrapropylammonium cation (TPA+) and with Li+, Na+, NH4+ and K+ fluorides. In absence of TPA+ no thermal effects have been observed in Li+- and Na+-gels. The effects observed in the NH4+ -gel stem from a decomposition and release of inorganic phases: SiF4, NH4F, NH3. The DTA/DTG effects in the TPA+ containing gels and in the MFI crystals of monodisperse size are attributed to the decomposition of TPA+ cation. It can be concluded from these effects that the interaction between the gels and the TPA+ cation is rather weak. The interaction between TPA+ and MFI crystals obtained in fluoride medium is stronger than the interaction with crystals obtained from alkaline media. Similar thermal effects are obtained after grinding the long crystals to those having a large distribution of crystal sizes.
The main function of the Kis-Balaton Water Protection System is to retain nutrients and total suspended solids, thus protecting the water quality of Lake Balaton. In this paper, the toxic nature of the sediment in the 2nd reservoir of the KBWPS has been characterised, using a battery of tests: Vibrio fischeri acute bioassay on whole sediment samples, and V. fischeri bioassay on pore water and elutriate samples. The latest version of the V. fischeri bioluminescence inhibition was applied, the Flash assay which uses a kinetic mode and is able to detect the toxicity of solid, turbid/coloured samples. Whole sediment toxicity showed a clear spatial distribution of toxicity, in parallel with elutriate toxicity. However, no pore water toxicity was detected, leading to the conclusion that contaminants are not water soluble.