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Sunflower (PSH 569) was used to obtain textured defatted meal. Proximate analysis, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), fat absorption capacities (FAC), foaming capacity (FC), and bulk density (BD) were determined. The objective of the study was the optimization of extrusion conditions for production of textured defatted sunflower meal using response surface methodology (RSM) by evaluating functional properties. It was dried, grinded, and sieved to eliminate hull and fibre. Numerical optimization provided eight solutions with desirability value varying from 0.81 to 0.82. Range of predicted values of FAC (80.96–90.49), WHC (1.95–2.12), WSI (3.22–3.36), WAI (2.84–3.08), bulk density (0.31–0.36), and foaming capacity (14.39–16.30) were used for numerical optimization. Best extrusion conditions were 16.36% feed moisture, 300 r.p.m. screw speed, and 149.40 °C barrel temperature. Textured sunflower defatted meal was prepared using the above optimized conditions.

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Solvent free reactions

Reactions of nitrophenols in 8-hydroxyquinoline–benzoic acid eutectic melt

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Preeti Gupta
,
Tanvi Agrawal
,
S. S. Das
, and
N. B. Singh

Abstract

Reactions of nitrophenols have been studied in the eutectic melt of 8-hydroxyquinoline–benzoic acid, where it reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The reactions were also carried out in solution. The reaction products obtained from both the methods were characterized by FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction technique and microstructural investigations. The reaction products obtained from eutectic melt were analyzed for C, H, N. The results showed that reaction products obtained from both the methods are same. An attempt has been made to propose the overall mechanism of the reaction in the eutectic melt.

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Abstract  

Tracer diffusion of131I ions is studied at different temperatures /20°C–50°C/ in 2.5% agar gel containing sodium and potassium sulphate solutions over a wide range of concentrations. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical values in the concentration range 10–6–10–1M. Agar gel shows an obstruction effect to diffusional flow. The activation energy for tracer diffusion was found to be of the order of 16.3 kJ mol–1.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on scalp hair and fingernail samples collected randomly from a group of heavily exposed healthy male industrial workers living in the cities of Hamilton and Toronto (Ont.), Canada. The concentrations of trace elements (Ag, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Lu, Mn, Mo, Rb, Ru and T3) were evaluated and compared for scalp hair and fingernails. Various trace elements show similar variations in the two kinds of samples. The results have also been compared with those for normal subjects from USA (scalp hair) and Canada (fingernails).

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Abstract  

The solid state reactions between ferrous oxalate dihydrate i.e. FeC2O4.2H2O and unsubstituted/ substituted aniline hydrochlorides have been studied. The products [FeCl/oxH/. AN-Cl] have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. The kinetic studies for the reactions have been performed at various temperatures for fixed particle sizes at constant compaction. The following order of reactivity has been observed: unsubstituted > p-substituted > m-substituted o-substituted.

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Field trials were conducted in the dry and wet seasons of 1998 at Samaru (11°11' N, 07° 38' E, 686 m above sea level) in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, to investigate the potential of cinosulfuron and CGA152005 seed treatments on the reaction of upland rice varieties to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. Seven varieties of upland rice formed the main plots treatments while four levels each of cinosulfuron at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/l and CGA152005 at 0.008, 0.016, 0.032 and 0.064 g/l, as well as two no herbicide treatments of dry sowing and distilled water-soaked planting were assigned to the subplots. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The resistant varieties FARO 40 and WAB 56-50 did not support Striga emergence and also produced grain yields which were the maximum, or comparable to the maximum. FARO 11, a susceptible variety, produced high grain yields in spite of support for early, high Striga emergence. In spite of delayed emergence of Striga on FARO 38 and FARO 48, these varieties, as well as FARO 46 and FARO 45, supported high Striga emergence, exhibited high crop reaction scores to Striga and produced low grain yields. The seed treatment of upland rice varieties with cinosulfuron at 0.2 to 0.6 g/l and CGA152005 at 0.032 and 0.064 g/l significantly delayed Striga emergence compared with the lower rates. After seed treatment with cinosulfuron at 0.6 g/l, the susceptible rice variety FARO 38 and the resistant variety WAB 56-50 produced rice grain yields comparable to the maximum obtained with FARO 40 given seed treatment with CGA 152005 at 0.064 g/l. The significant interactions of varieties of upland rice and herbicide seed treatments on the number of days to first Striga emergence, Striga shoot count and crop reaction to Striga confirm the differential influence of various concentrations of the herbicide seed treatments on the virulence of Striga hermonthica on varieties of upland rice.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
Zs. Ürmös
,
M. K. Singh
,
B. Pálfalvy
,
D. Cserhalmi
, and
J. Nagy
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A pedicel contains a ring of conjoint vascular bundles. Ten traces diverge out from the ring. Of these, five are sepal dorsals and the other five are compound, each splitting up tangentially to give rise to two marginal traces of adjacent sepals and a petal dorsal. The receptacular stele gives out ten staminal traces in two whorls of five each. Around the base of the ovary the disc is with prominent vascular supply. The receptacular stele finally consists of only five bundles which become completely used up in furnishing the vascular supply of the gynoecium. The placentation is anatomically and topographically axile. There has been an acrimonious debate regarding the systematic position of the genus Balanites. It was originally placed in the Zygophyllaceae then shifted to the Simaroubaceae and finally a separate family Balanitaceae was created. Retention of the genus Balanites in the Zygophyllaceae is supported on the basis of floral anatomy, embryology, taxonomy and pollen morphology.

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Copper(II), silver(I) and lead(II) salts of N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-N-nitroglycine were prepared and characterised. The thermal behaviour of the salts in air and nitrogen atmospheres was studied by means of DTA and TG techniques. The environment appeared to have no effect on the mode of decomposition. While metal oxides are formed as the end-products of decomposition of the copper and lead salts, metallic silver plus carbon was found to be final product from the silver salt. The thermal stabilities of these salts follow the sequence silver salt>lead salt>copper salt.

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Sixty-seven cultivars and advanced breeding lines from three major Indian wheat-producing zones were used to investigate the presence of 1RS.1BL translocation and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), and to determine their effect on bread loaf volume and yield. The frequency of 1RS.1BL translocation was detected in 50.7% of the genotypes. Three, five and two allelic variations were observed at Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1 , respectively. The genotypes with 1RS.1BL translocation were significantly high in grain yield and bread loaf volume than genotypes without 1RS.1BL translocation. The majority of genotypes (76.4%) possessing 1RS.1BL translocation had HMW-GS 5+10. It was concluded that the deleterious effect of rye translocation can be compensated by desirable HMW-GS at Glu-D1 locus.

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