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A vesetranszplantáció korai posztoperatív hatásai a szív- és érrendszeri betegségekre klinikai gyakorlatunkban

Early postoperative effects of kidney transplantation on the cardiovascular system in our clinical practice

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Andrea Daragó
,
Gerda Schwegler
,
Eszter Szabó
,
Dorina Barkó
,
Réka P. Szabó
,
Attila Csaba Nagy
,
Gergő József Szőllősi
, and
Balázs Nemes

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Mind a dializált, mind a veseátültetett betegek körében vezető haláloknak számít a cardiovascularis megbetegedés. E mögött főképp bal kamrai hypertrophia, volumenterheltség, következményes szívritmuszavar, szívbillentyű-elégtelenség, fokozott atherosclerosis állhat. Célkitűzés: Célunk a vesetranszplantáció hatásának vizsgálata a bal kamra pumpafunkciójára, a szívritmuszavarokat kiváltó és meghatározó tényezőkre és a vitiumokra nézve. Módszerek: A 2014. december 20. és 2018. június 21. közti időintervallumban, a Debreceni Egyetem Szervtranszplantációs Tanszékén felnőtt betegeken végzett veseátültetéseket vizsgáltuk retrospektív analízissel (n = 184). Vesetranszplantációt megelőzően, illetve azt követően 6 és 12 hónappal az echokardiográfiás, a laboratóriumi és a gyógyszeres terápiás értékeket tanulmányoztuk. A statisztikai elemzéseket khi-négyzet-próbával, Fisher-féle egzakt teszttel és Kruskal–Wallis-féle varianciaanalízissel (ANOVA) végeztük (szignifikancia: p<0,05). Eredmények: A bal kamra végsystolés tágassága az átültetés előtt 34,67 mm volt, míg a 6 hónapos eredmény 31,82 mm, a 12 hónapos 32,68 mm volt (p = 0,01). Átültetés előtt a stroke prevalenciája 7,87% volt, míg a beavatkozás után nem fordult elő szélütés (p<0,001). Transzplantáció hatására a bal pitvari átmérő (43,68 mm; 41,59 mm; 41,00 mm; p = 0,0417) és a káliumszint (4,98 mmol/l; 4,49 mmol/l; 4,49 mmol/l; p = 0,01) szignifikáns változást igazolt. Műtét előtt II. fokú mitralis regurgitatiót észleltünk 10,7%-nál, mely 4,3%-ra, majd 2,1%-ra csökkent (p = 0,03). Transzplantációt megelőzően a billentyűmeszesedés előfordulása diabetesesek között 45% (p = 0,20), 6 hónap múlva 46,7% (p = 0,018), 12 hónap múlva 60,0% (p = 0,024) volt. Következtetés: Transzplantáció után a bal pitvari átmérő, a végsystolés bal kamrai átmérő regrediál, csökken a pitvari ritmuszavarok kialakulásának gyakorisága. A mitralis regurgitatio közepesen súlyos fokainál szignifikáns javulást, a diabeteses populáción belül szignifikáns emelkedést tapasztaltunk a meszes billentyűk számát tekintve. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(26): 1052–1062.

Summary. Introduction: Among the population suffering from end-stage renal failure and the population after kidney transplantation, the leading reason of death is cardiovascular triggered by left ventricular hypertrophy, volume overload, consecutive arrhythmias, valvular insufficiency and increased artherosclerosis. Objective: This study was aimed at examining the effect of kidney transplantation on pump function of the left ventricle, arrhythmic substrates and valvular heart diseases. Methods: At the Division of Organ Transplantation, University of Debrecen, we carried out a retrospective data analysis of adult patients (n = 184) who had kidney transplantation in the period between December 2014 and June 2018. Preoperatively and, then, postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months) we studied the echocardiographic parameters, the laboratory results. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square/Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The results were regarded significant if p<0.05 was found. Results: Preoperatively the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle was 34.67 mm, whereas 6 and 12 months later these values were 31.82 mm and 32.68 mm (p = 0.01). The prevalence of stroke was 7.87% preoperatively; there was no stroke detected postoperatively (p<0.001). The impact of transplantation on the left atrial diameter (43.68 mm; 41.59 mm; 41.00 mm; p = 0.04) and seral potassium level (4.98 mmol/l; 4.49 mmol/l; 4.49 mmol/l; p<0.01) showed significant improvement. Before transplantation, grade 2 mitral regurgitation was observed in 10.7% of the patients, whereas it reduced to 4.3%, then to 2.1% 6 and 12 months postoperatively (p = 0.03). Preoperative valvular calcification was detected in 45% of the diabetic study population (p = 0.20), 6 and 12 months later, in 46.7% (p = 0.018) and 60.0% (p = 0.024). Conclusion: After transplantation, the left atrial and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle regrediated, decreasing the frequency of arrhythmic episodes. The number of the middle grade mitral valve regurgitation decreased and the calcification among diabetic population increased significantly. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(26): 1052–1062.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Attila Doros
,
Pál Ákos Deák
,
Erika Hartmann
,
Andrea Németh
,
Zsuzsa Gerlei
,
János Fazakas
,
Dénes Görög
,
Balázs Nemes
,
Imre Fehérvári
, and
László Kóbori

Abstract

Introduction: Biliary strictures remain a key problem after liver transplantation. Anastomotic strictures are treated by surgery or interventional therapy. Intrahepatic stenosis requires retransplantation. For bridging, percutaneous and endoscopic interventions are used. The extent of the strictures may have an important role in therapy planning. Methods: Strictures were divided into four zones (1: extrahepatic, not included in this study; 2: hilar; 3: central; 4: peripheral). Twenty patients were treated with balloon dilatation/stent implantation/retransplantation/supportive care (Zone 1: 0/0/0/0; Zone 2: 8/7/2/0; Zone 3: 7/5/2/1; Zone 4: 1/1/3/1). Results: Mean follow-up time was 48 months. In Zone 2, one patient died as a result of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and seven patients are alive, five after stent placements and two after retransplantation. Four patients are alive in Zone 3: all had stent placements and one later retransplantation. One patient died after retransplantation, two on the waiting list, and one due to chronic liver failure. One patient is alive in Zone 4 after early retransplantation, and three died. Conclusion: Percutaneous therapy is safe and effective in intrahepatic biliary stenosis after liver transplantation. It can provide the cure or bridge retransplantation. Based on zonal classification, we recommend the following treatments: Zone 4: early retransplantation; Zone 2: minimally invasive therapy; Zone 3: individual decisions.

Restricted access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Fanni Gelley
,
Gergely Zádori
,
Dénes Görög
,
László Kóbori
,
Imre Fehérvári
,
György Gámán
,
Zsuzsanna Gerlei
,
Péter Nagy
,
Enikő Sárváry
, and
Balázs Nemes

Abstract

Introduction

Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) after liver transplantation (OLT) significantly affects longterm graft survival. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of rPSC and clinical data of these patients in Hungary.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively analyzed data of 511 whole liver transplantations from 1995 to 2011. During the study period, 49 OLTs were performed in 43 adult patients with end-stage PSC (10%).

Results

Out of 49 OLT, 24 cases were excluded, rPSC was diagnosed in six patients (12%). Patients with rPSC had significantly higher mortality (p = 0.009) and graft loss (p = 0.009) in comparison to patients without recurrent disease. Younger recipient age, higher donor BMI was observed in the rPSC group. One patient was diagnosed with de novo IBD, the remaining five patients had worsening IBD activity in the posttransplant period. PreOLT colectomy was performed in 21% of the control and none of the rPSC group. PostOLT colectomy was performed in two rPSC patients due to severe therapy resistant colitis.

Conclusions

Recurrent PSC significantly affects long-term mortality and graft loss. Younger age at OLT, higher donor BMI and severe active IBD may be associated with PSC recurrence. PreOLT total colectomy might have protective effect against rPSC.

Restricted access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Balázs Nemes
,
É. Toronyi
,
K. Rajczy
,
A. Szakos
,
B. Somlai
,
A. Doros
,
R. Chmel
,
F. Derner
, and
L. Kóbori

Abstract

Malignant diseases are considered as great challenges in clinical transplantation. It is well known that the incidence of malignancy is higher in the transplanted population if compared with the normal population. It is important to distinguish between neoplastic diseases originating from pre-existing lesions in the transplanted organs and de novo graft tumours. Post-transplant malignancy of donor origin is a rare complication of organ transplantation, most likely transmitted as micrometastases within the parenchyma of the donor organ or from circulating tumour cells contained within the organ. Malignant melanoma, although its incidence is rather low, is one of the most common donor-derived tumour inadvertently transplanted, comprising 28% of donor transmitted tumours. Malignant melanoma in the graft without dermatological localisation is extremely rare. We report a case of de novo melanoma occurring in the allograft, where transmission from the donor was excluded by DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid) investigation. We did not find any data in the literature where a malignant melanoma occurred after transplantation in the transplanted kidney without any skin lesions and the donor origin was excluded. We draw attention to the importance of the DNA typing in case of tumours occurring in immunosuppressed patients.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Balázs Nemes
,
P. Sótonyi
,
G. Lotz
,
A. Heratizadeh
,
F. Gelley
,
C. Doege
,
M. Hubay
,
Zs. Schaff
, and
B. Nashan

Abstract

In chronic liver rejection lymphocyte mediated processes lead to chronic inflammation, necrosis and repair mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of apoptosis related proteins (FAS/APO-1, FAS-L, Bcl-2, Bax, TNF-α, and INF-γ). ApopTag reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed on liver samples of chronically rejected allografts and compared with normal donor livers. In chronic rejection, apoptosis was detected in pericentral hepatocytes and in the biliary epithelium. Bcl-2 was strongly expressed on lymphocytes around the bile ducts, but not on the biliary epithelium itself. Bax, FAS, TNF-α and INF-γ were present in pericentral areas. T-cells showed up around bile ducts, whereas macrophages around pericentral areas. In pericentral areas apoptosis seems to be fostered through TNF-α and INF-γ and by the lack of Bcl-2. Based on these results both downregulation and upregulation of apoptotic proteins can be observed in chronic liver allograft rejection: FAS is upregulated in biliary epithelium and zone 2, protein levels of FASL remain unchanged, BAX is upregulated in zone 3, BCL2 is downregulated in both biliary epithelium and zone 1 and both TNFa and IFN are upregulated in zone 3. Our results suggest that the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic patterns was shifted to the proapoptotic side, mainly in the centrilobular area of the hepatic lobule, and in the bile ducts. According to these findings in chronic rejection the predictive sites of apoptosis are the biliary epithelium and the pericentral areas.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Fanni Gelley
,
Attila Doros
,
Tamás Micsik
,
János Fazakas
,
Imre Fehérvári
,
Gergely Zádori
,
Zsófia Müller
,
András Gelley
, and
Balázs Nemes

Abstract

Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare systemic non-infectious inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology. It is characterized by high spiking fever, sore throat, arthralgia, transient maculopapular rash, hepatosplenomegaly, liver cytolysis, weight loss, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphadenopathy, myopathia and polyserositis. Mild or moderate liver involvement is common but fulminate liver failure is a rare manifestation. We report a 41-year-old male with undiagnosed adult Still's disease who underwent liver transplantation due to acute fulminate liver failure. He died 6 months after the liver transplantation in a septic condition. To date, six patients with adult Still's disease-related liver failure have been reported who required liver transplantation. We emphasize that adult Still's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fulminate liver failure, especially in young adults with fever of unknown aetiology or typical features in the history.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Zoltán Ruzsa
,
Károly Tóth
,
Zoltán Jambrik
,
Nándor Kovács
,
Sándor Nardai
,
Balázs Nemes
,
Kálmán Hüttl
, and
Béla Merkely

Abstract

Introduction

Percutaneous interventional procedures in the renal arteries are usually performed using a femoral or brachial vascular access. The transradial approach is becoming more popular for peripheral interventions, but limited data exists for renal artery angioplasty and stenting.

Methods

We have analyzed the clinical, angiographic and technical results of renal artery stenting performed from radial artery access between 2012 and 2013. The radial artery anatomy was identified with aortography using 100 cm pig tail catheter. After engagement of the renal artery ostium with a 6F Multipurpose or 6F JR5 guiding catheter, the stenosis was passed with a 0.014″ guidewire followed by angioplasty and stent implantation.

Results

In 27 patients (mean age: 65.4 ± 9.17) with hemodynamically relevant renal artery stenosis (mean diameter stenosis: 77.7 ± 10.6%; right, n = 7; left, n = 20), interventional treatment with angioplasty and stenting was performed using a left (n = 3) or right (n = 24) radial artery access. Direct stenting was successfully performed in 13 (48%) cases, and predilatations were required in ten cases 10 (37%). Primary technical success (residual stenosis <30%) could be achieved in all cases. The mean contrast consumption was 119 ± 65 ml and the mean procedure time was 30 ± 8.2 min. There were no major periprocedural vascular complications and in one patient transient creatinine level elevation was observed (3.7%). In one patient asymptomatic radial artery occlusion was detected (3.7%).

Conclusion

Transradial renal artery angioplasty and stenting is technically feasible and safe procedure.

Restricted access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Dávid Ágoston Kovács
,
László Szabó
,
Katalin Jenei
,
Roland Fedor
,
Gergely Zádori
,
Lajos Zsom
,
Krisztina Kabai
,
Anita Záhonyi
,
László Asztalos
, and
Balázs Nemes

Women with renal disease, besides many dysfunctions, face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy due to uremia and changes of the hormonal functions. After renal transplantation, sexual dysfunction improves, providing the possibility of successful pregnancy for women of childbearing age. However, kidney transplanted patients are high-risk pregnant patients with increased maternal and fetal risks, and the graft also may be compromised during pregnancy; most studies report on several successive deliveries due to multidisciplinary team management. In clinical practice, the graft is rarely affected during the period of gestation. Fetal development disorders are also rare although preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation are common. For now, several studies and clinical investigations proved that, under multidisciplinary control, kidney transplanted female patients are also possible to have safe pregnancy and successful delivery. There are conflicting data in the literature about the prevention of complications and the timing of pregnancy. Herein, we would like to present some experience of our centre. A total of 847 kidney transplantations have been performed between June 1993 and December 2013 with 163 childbearing aged females (18–45 years) in our center. We report on three kidney transplanted patients who have given birth to healthy newborns. In our practice, severe complications have not been observed.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Balázs Nemes
,
Fanni Gelley
,
Gergely Zádori
,
Dénes Görög
,
Imre Fehérvári
,
Katalin Jakab
,
János Fazakas
,
Tamás Mándli
,
Zsuzsa Gerlei
,
Enikő Sárváry
,
Attila Doros
, and
László Kóbori

A májátültetések számát korlátozza a beültetésre alkalmas donorszervek mennyisége. A szervhiány megoldására az egyik lehetőség az úgynevezett marginális donorok (extended donor criteria) elfogadása a májátültetési programban. Célkitűzés: A magyar májátültetési program szervdonációs jellemzőinek vizsgálata, különös tekintettel a marginális donorokra. Módszer: Donor- és recipiensadatok retrospektív feldolgozása 2003. január és 2008. december között. A marginálisdonor-kritériumrendszert nemzetközi ajánlások alapján állítottuk fel. Eredmények: A vizsgált periódus alatt összesen 1078 donort jelentettek a klinikán. Nyolcszázharmincöt esetben (77,4%) alkalmatlannak ítélték a donormájat a transzplantációra, 243 esetben (22,6%) volt beültetésre alkalmas a donormáj. A beültetett májgraftok közül 40 (16%) származott marginális, 203 (84%) nem marginális donorból. Marginális májgraftok beültetése esetén nem volt különbség a beteg- és grafttúlélésben, a posztoperatív graftfunkciót jelző paraméterekben és az általános szövődmények gyakoriságában. A korai hepatitis C-rekurrencia gyakoribb volt marginális graft beültetése esetén. Következtetések: A májátültetésre váró betegek száma hazánkban is folyamatosan növekszik. Marginális májgraftok alkalmazása esetén a betegek morbiditása és mortalitása nem különbözik számottevően a standard donorokból származó májgraftok beültetése után tapasztalt eredményektől. Hepatitis C-vírus esetén nem javasolt marginális májgraft beültetése. A donorok felső életkori határának kiterjesztése megfontolandó.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Zoltán Máthé
,
László Kóbori
,
Dénes Görög
,
Imre Fehérvári
,
Balázs Nemes
,
Zsuzsa Gerlei
,
Attila Doros
,
Andrea Németh
,
Tamás Mándli
,
János Fazakas
, and
Jenő Járay

A világszerte fennálló szervdonorhiány csökkentésének egyik lehetősége az élő donoros májtranszplantáció. A szerzők beszámolnak a Magyarországon először végzett felnőttkori élő donoros májtranszplantációval szerzett tapasztalataikról. Az átültetés testvérek között történt, 2007. november 19-én. A 33 éves egészséges férfi donor májának jobb lebenye (V–VIII. szegmentum) került eltávolításra és beültetésre az autoimmun hepatitis talaján kialakult cirrhosisban szenvedő, egy éve májtranszplantációs várólistán levő, 23 éves nőbetegbe. A jobb májlebeny beültetése saját hepatectomia után orthotopicus helyzetben történt. A májfunkció gyorsan javult a transzplantációt követően. A donort szövődménymentes posztoperatív szak után, stabil májfunkciós paraméterekkel, a 10. napon otthonába bocsátottuk. Dolgozik, aktív életet él, a kontrollvizsgálatok a máj jelentős regenerációját mutatták. A recipiens két évvel a májátültetés után, kompenzált májfunkcióval szintén aktív életet él és rendszeres ellenőrzés alatt áll. A felnőttkori élő donoros májtranszplantáció előnye a lerövidíthető várakozási idő és a tervezhető műtét. Az eljárás a donor biztonságának maximális előtérbe helyezésével, jól szelektált esetekben, alkalmas lehet a szervhiány csökkentésére.

Open access