We present a planar chromatographic separation method for the compounds caffeine, artemisinin, and equol, separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) silica gel plates. As solvents for separation, methyl t-butyl ether and cyclohexane (1:1, V/V) have been used for equol, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, V/V) for artemisinin, and ethyl acetate and acetone (7:3, V/V) for caffeine. After separation, the plate was scanned with a very specific time of flight-direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (TOF-DART-MS) system using the (M + 1)+ signals of equol, artemisinin, and caffeine. The (M + 1) peak of artemisinin at 283.13 m/z is clearly detectable, which is the proof that DART-MS is applicable for the quantitative determination of rather instable molecules. The planar set-up of DART source, HPTLC plate and detector inlet in a line showed higher sensitivities compared to desorption at an angle. The optimal detector voltage increases with the molar mass of the analyte, thus an individual determination of optimal detector voltage setting for the different analyte is recommended to achieve the best possible measurement conditions. In conclusion, DART-MS detection in combination with an HPTLC separation allows very specific quantification of all three compounds.
Authors:Bernd Spangenberg and Karl-Friedrich Klein
In-situ densitometry for qualitative or quantitative purposes is a key step in thin-layer chromatography (TLC). It is a simple means of quantification by measurement of the optical density of the separated spots directly on the plate. A new scanner has been developed which is capable of measuring TLC or HPTLC (high-performance thin-layer chromatography) plates simultaneously at different wavelengths without damaging the plate surface. Fiber optics and special fiber interfaces are used in combination with a diode-array detector. With this new scanner sophisticated plate evaluation is now possible, which enables use of chemometric methods in HPTLC. Different regression models have been introduced which enable appropriate evaluation of all analytical questions. Fluorescent measurements are possible without filters or special lamps and signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by wavelength bundling. Because of the richly structured spectra obtained from PAH, diode-array HPTLC enables quantification of all 16 EPA PAH on one track. Although the separation is incomplete all 16 compounds can be quantified by use of suitable wavelengths. All these aspects are enable substantial improvement of in-situ quantitative densitometric analysis.
Authors:Bernd Spangenberg and Marion Weyandt-Spangenberg
We present a videodensitometric quantification method for methadone in syrup, separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The quantification is based on a derivation reaction with Dragendorff reagent. Measurements were carried out using a 16-bit flatbed scanner. The range of linearity covers two magnitudes of power using the Kubelka-Munk expression for data transformation. The separation method is inexpensive, fast, and reliable.
We present a two-dimensional (2D) planar chromatographic separation method for phytoestrogenic active compounds on RP-18 W (Merck, 1.14296) phase. It could be shown that an ethanolic extract of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots contains four phytoestrogenic active compounds. As solvent, in the first direction, the mix of hexane, ethyl acetate, and acetone (45:15:10, v/v) was used, and, in the second direction, that of acetone and water (15:10, v/v) was used. After separation, a modified yeast estrogen screen (YES) test was applied, using the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ3505. The test strain (according to McDonnell) contains the estrogen receptor. Its activation by estrogen active compounds is measured by inducing the reporter gene lacZ which encodes the enzyme β-galactosidase. This enzyme activity is determined on plate by using the fluorescent substrate MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactopyranoside). The enzyme can also hydrolyse X-β-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-β-d-galactopyranosid) into β-galactose and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl. The indoxyl compound is oxidized by oxygen forming the deep-blue dye 5,5β-dibromo-4,4β-dichloro-indigo which allows to detect phytoestrogenic activity more specific in the presence of native fluorescing compounds.
Authors:Bernd Spangenberg, Klemens Lorenz, and Steffen Nasterlack
In-situ densitometry for qualitative or quantitative purposes is a key step in thin-layer chromatography. It offers a simple way of quantifying by measuring the optical density of the separated spots directly on the plate. A new TLC scanner has been developed which is able to measure TLC plates or HPTLC plates, at different wavelengths simultaneously, without destroying the plate surface. The system enables absorbance and fluorescence measurements in one run. Fluorescence measurements are possible without filters or other adjustments.The measurement of fluorescence from a TLC plate is a versatile means of making TLC analysis more sensitive. Fluorescence measurements with the new scanner are possible without filters or special lamps. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is achieved by wavelength bundling. During plate scanning the scattered light and the fluorescence are both emitted from the surface of the TLC plate and this emitted light provides the desired spectral information from substances on the TLC plate. The measurement of fluorescence spectra and absorbance spectra directly from a TLC plate is based on differential measurement of light emerging from sample-free and sample-containing zones.The literature recommends dipping TLC plates in viscous liquids to enhance fluorescence. Measurement of the fluorescence and absorbance spectra of pyrene spots reveals the mechanism of enhancement of plate dipping in viscous liquids — blocked contact of the fluorescent molecules with the stationary phase or other sample molecules is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence at lower concentrations.In conclusion, dipping in TLC analysis is no miracle. It is based on similar mechanisms observable in liquids. The measured TLC spectra are also very similar to liquid spectra and this makes TLC spectroscopy an important tool in separation analysis.
Authors:Barbara Milz, Karl-Friedrich Klein, and Bernd Spangenberg
We will present the first example of a two-dimensional scanned TLC-plate, measured by use of a diode-array scanner. A spatial resolution of 250 μm was achieved on plate. The system provides real 2D fluorescence and absorption spectra in the wavelength-range from 190 to 1000 nm with a spectral resolution of greater than 1 nm. A mixture of 12 sulphonamides was separated by using a cyanopropyl-coated silica gel plate (Merck, 1.16464) with the solvent mix of methyl tert-butyl ether-methanol-dichloromethane-cyclohexane-NH3 (25%) (48:2:2:1:1, v/v) in the first and with a mixture of water-acetonitrile-dioxane-ethanol (8:2:1:1, v/v) in the second direction. Both developments were carried out over a distance of 70 mm. A separation number (spot capacity) of 259 was calculated. We discussed a new formula for its calculation in 2D-TLC separations. The drawback of this method is that measuring a 2D-TLC plate needs more than 3 h measurement time.