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Often less than optimal PUFA content of human diet have started the research aimed to increase its quantity in meats. Including linseed and sunflower oil in rabbit feed effectively improves rabbit meat lipid composition, but its altered sensitivity to oxidative reactions could result in colour change. The effect of vegetable oil content of the diet and vitamin E supplementation was studied on the colour of rabbit loin and thigh meats and dissected fat. Meat lightness, redness, yellowness, hue and chromacity were measured with Minolta chromameter on samples cooled to 5 °C for 24 h. Including sunflower (2%) and linseed (2%) oil in rabbit diet changed the colour of the dissected fat making it lighter (L* 76.96 v. 73.79), more yellowish (b* 13.34 v. 11.41) and intense (C* 14.49 v. 12.35) coloured compared to the control diet without vegetable oils. To the effect of the vitamin E supplementation of vegetable oil containing feed redness of the thigh decreased (a* 4.41 v 5.44) and hue increased (h° 58.63 v. 49.76). The source of vitamin E supplement influenced only the colour of loin: natural vitamin E increased lightness (L* 53.03 v. 49.62), yellowness (3.86 v. 3.04) and chromacity (3.96 v. 3.25) while synthetic vitamin E did not. The changes of loin, thigh and fat colour observed in this study may be utilized in making the product more desirable to the consumer.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Gabriella Gombos Császár
,
V. Bajsz
,
E. Sió
,
V. Steinhausz Tóth
,
B. Schmidt
,
L. Szekeres
, and
J. Kránicz

As a prevention, a physically active lifestyle including the performance of weight-bearing exercises is important to enhance and maintain bone mineral content. Fifty young women were selected for the study. Twenty-five women carried out a specific training directed by a physiotherapist in the training group (TG), while 25 women were walking for 60 minutes in the control group (CG). Total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP and BALP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of exercise. The most remarkable change was seen in CTX levels (TG −28.89%, p < 0.001; CG −52.54%, p < 0.001), and there was also a significant difference in the values of CTX between TG and CG (p = 0.012). Therefore, walking more significantly reduced the level of CTX than special exercise. The decrease of BALP in TG was considerable but not significant (TG −4.63%, p = 0.091), while BALP levels dropped significantly in CG (−7.65%, p = 0.011), and there was a non-significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.22). Regarding the ALP level, a significant reduction was detected in TG and CG (−6.84%, p < 0.001 vs. −4.57%, p < 0.001). This study reveals that the 60-minute, middle-intensity training and the brisk walking have an immediate effect on bone metabolic markers.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
G. Kovács
,
J. Schmidt
,
F. Husvéth
,
K. Dublecz
,
L. Wágner
, and
E. Farkas-Zele
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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Bagdi
,
G. Balázs
,
J. Schmidt
,
M. Szatmári
,
R. Schoenlechner
,
E. Berghofer
, and
S. Tömösközia

Six varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and two commercially available millets were investigated in the present study. In order to explore the nutritional potential, major nutrient composition, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenols content (related to the antioxidant capacity) and dietary fibre content were determined. The effects of decortication on these components were examined. In addition, protein profile of the varieties and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch were examined. The range of the values measured for major nutrient composition corresponds with data of other millet species published in earlier studies. Remarkable differences were found among the protein contents of the varieties (11.58–14.80%). Although the concentration of minerals was low in the varieties examined, in comparison with other cereals wholegrain millet seems to be nutritionally valuable because of their high dietary fibre content. Decortication had no effect on the protein and fat content of millets, however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fibre, dietary fibre, minerals, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. Consequently the applicability of millets as functional food decreases. Decortication had no effect on the amylose/amylopectin ratio of millet. No varietal differences were found in terms of protein characteristics.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Csapó
,
J. Schmidt
,
Zs. Csapó-Kiss
,
G. Holló
,
I. Holló
,
L. Wágner
,
É. Cenkvári
,
É. Varga-Visi
,
G. Pohn
, and
G. Andrássy-Baka

In the past years several methods have been developed for the determination of the proportion of the nitrogen-containing substances of microbial origin passed from the rumen into the abomasum or the small intestine. Recently, on examining the D-amino acid content of foodstuffs, particularly milk and milk products, it has been observed that, in addition to D-Ala, D- glutamic acid (D-Glu) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) can also be detected in similar quantities, primarily in products which have links with bacterial activity. This gave rise to the idea of examining the diaminopimelic acid (DAPA), D-Glu and D-Asp content of bacteria extracted from the rumen of cattle and that of chyme from the same cattle, in order to determine the type of relation existing among these three components, and to establish whether D-Asp and D-Glu can be used in the estimation of protein of bacterial origin. On determination of the DAPA, D-Asp and D-Glu content by means of amino acid analyser and high performance liquid chromatography of duodenal chyme from five growing bulls and of ruminal bacteria from the same bulls, the following values were established. For chyme (and, in brackets, for ruminal bacteria) r value calculated by means of linear regression was 0.78 (0.76) between DAPA and D-Asp, and 0.70 (0.81) between DAPA and D-Glu. The r values between the crude protein content of ruminal bacteria and the markers examined were found to be the following: DAPA, 0.74; D-Asp, 0.73; D- Glu, 0.61. In the model experiment performed for the re-obtaining of values for protein of bacterial origin the theoretical values were determined on the basis of D-Asp and D-Glu and values approximately 10% higher than the theoretical value on the basis of DAPA. It is therefore recommended that in addition to DAPA these other two amino acids be included among the bacterial protein markers.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Anna-Chiara Schaub
,
Maximilian Meyer
,
Amos Tschopp
,
Aline Wagner
,
Undine E. Lang
,
Marc Walter
,
Flora Colledge
, and
André Schmidt

Abstract

Background

Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by behavioural and psychological symptoms that resemble those of substance use disorders. However, it remains inconclusive whether ED is accompanied by similar brain alterations as seen in substance use disorders. Therefore, we investigated brain alterations in individuals with ED and inactive control participants.

Methods

In this cross-sectional neuroimaging investigation, 29 individuals with ED as assessed with the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) and 28 inactive control participants (max one hour exercising per week) underwent structural and functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Group differences were explored using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses. Analyses were restricted to the striatum, amygdala, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Exploratory analyses tested whether relationships between brain structure and function were differently related to EDS subscales among groups.

Results

No structural differences were found between the two groups. However, right IFG and bilateral putamen volumes were differently related to the EDS subscales “time” and “tolerance”, respectively, between the two groups. Resting-state functional connectivity was increased from right IFG to right superior parietal lobule in individuals with ED compared to inactive control participants. Furthermore, functional connectivity of the angular gyrus to the left IFG and bilateral caudate showed divergent relationships to the EDS subscale “tolerance” among groups.

Discussion

The findings suggest that ED may be accompanied by alterations in cognition-related brain structures, but also functional changes that may drive compulsive habitual behaviour. Further prospective studies are needed to disentangle beneficial and detrimental brain effects of ED.

Open access

From Y- to Siamese-twin shaped glycolipids

Influence on the thermotropic phase behaviour

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. E. Milkereit
,
S. S. H. Gerber
,
Karin Jankowski
,
A. Terjung
,
R. R. Schmidt
, and
V. Vill

A set of Y-shaped and Siamese-twin shaped carbohydrate based glycolipids was investigated using polarising microscopy. The structure was changed from the normal type (1 head, two chains) to complex inverted structures (2 heads outside 1 to 3 chains in the middle part). The carbohydrate headgroup was changed from mono- to disaccharide; also the alkyl chain length was varied systematically. The compounds displayed different thermotropic mesophases (Smectic A phases, columnar phases and cubic phases) depending on the type of carbohydrate headgroup and the alkyl chain length.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
B. Bisplinghoff
,
V. Bradnova
,
R. Brandt
,
K. Dwivedi
,
V. Butsev
,
E. Friedlander
,
S. Gosh
,
Guo Shi-Lun
,
M. Heck
,
Jin Huimin
,
M. Krivopustov
,
B. Kulakov
,
C. Laue
,
L. Lerman
,
Th. Schmidt
,
A. Sosnin
, and
Wang Yu-Lan

Abstract  

An extended Cu-target was irradiated with 22 and 44 GeV carbon ions for about 11.3 and 14.7 hours, respectively. The upper side of the target was in contact with a paraffin-block for the moderation of secondary neutrons. Small holes in the moderator were filled with either lanthanum salts or uranium oxide. The reaction
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${}^{139}La(n,\gamma ){}^{140}La\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - }$$ \end{document}
was studied via the decay of140La(40h) using radiochemical methods, as has been published. The reaction
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${}^{238}U(n,\gamma )^{239} U\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - } {}^{239}Np\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - }$$ \end{document}
was studied via the decay of239Np(2.3 d) as well as the reaction U(n,f) using radiochemical methods. In addition, solid state nuclear track detectors were used for fission studies in gold. The yields for the formation of (n,) products agree essentially with other experiments on extended targets carried out at the Dubna Synchrophasotron (LHE, JINR). To a first approximation, the breeding rate of (n, ) products doubles when the carbon energy increases from 22 to 44 GeV. If, however, results at 44 GeV are compared in detail to those at 22 GeV, we observe an excess of (37±9)% in the experimentally observed239Np-breeding rate over theoretical estimations. Experiments using solid state nuclear track detectors give similar results. We present a conception for the interpretation of this fact: There is the evident connection between anomalies we observe in the yield of secondary particles in relativistic heavy ion interactions above a total energy of approximately 30–35 GeV and increased yield of neutrons in this energy region.
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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Krivopustov
,
J. Adam
,
V. Bradnova
,
R. Brandt
,
V. Butsev
,
P. Golubev
,
V. Kalinnikov
,
J. Karachuk
,
B. Kulakov
,
E.-J. Langrock
,
G. Modolo
,
M. Ochs
,
R. Odoj
,
A. Premyshev
,
V. Pronskich
,
Th. Schmidt
,
V. Stegailov
,
J. Wan
, and
V. Zupko-Sitnikov

Abstract  

First experiments on the transmutation of long-lived129I and237Np using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV are described. Relativistic protons generate in extended Pb-targets substancial neutron fluences. These neutrons get moderated in paraffin and are used for transmutation as follows:129I(n,)130I and237Np(n,)238Np . The isotopes130I (T 1/2-12.36 h) and238Np (T 1/2=2.117 d) were identified radiochemically. One can estimate the transmutation cross-section (n,) in the given neutron field as (129I(n,))=(10±2)b and (237Np(n,))=(140±30)b The experiments were carried out in November 1996 at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, Dubna, Russia. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR, Dubna.

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