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Thermally induced changes in the oxidation state of cerium(IV)

A study of carbonate and chloro complexes

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Madarász, T. Leskelä, G. Pokol, and L. Niinistö

Abstract

Cesium hexachlorocerate(IV), Cs2CeCl6 (I) and sodium pentakis(carbonato)cerate(IV), Na6Ce(CO3)5·12H2O (II) have been investigated in air by simultaneous TG/DTA, FTIR and XRD in order to follow the oxidation state of cerium during their thermal treatment. The thermal decomposition of the hexachloro compound (I) is accompanied by a double change in the oxidation state of cerium. First, in an inner reduction-oxidation reaction, chlorine is evolved and a Cs2CeCl5 phase is obtained. The immediately starting oxidation of this Ce(III) species caused various phase transitions in the CeCl3-CsCl system formed. The presence of Cs3CeCl6 above 400°C can also be assumed and finally this phase also oxidizes into CeO2 with the formation of CsCl as by-product. In the case of the pentacarbonato complex (II), no Ce(III) species were detected. The final products of its decomposition were CeO2 and Na2CO3.

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Abstract  

The optical resolution of racemic mandelic acid (I) by S-2-benzylamino-butanol (II) was performed in water, ethyl acetate, and water saturated ethyl acetate. It was found that the efficiency of the resolution is three times higher in water saturated ethyl acetate than in either water or ethyl acetate. The salt mixtures produced during the resolutions and the pure diastereoisomeric salts were analyzed by TG, DSC and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. The R-(-)-IS-(+)-II salt has the higher melting point and heat of fusion value which indicates that this is the more stable salt. Though the general assumption is that diastereoisomeric salt pairs of successful optical resolutions form eutectic systems, the R-mandelic acid-S-2-benzylamino-butanol and the S-mandelic acid-S-2-benzylamino-butanol system was found to behave in a different way. Melting did not start at or near the estimated eutectic temperature. The difference can be explained either by miscibility in the solid phase (solid solution) or by a blocked interaction between the crystals of the two solid salts. This unusual behaviour of the salt pair should be responsible for the unusual difference in the efficiency of the resolutions performed in different solvents

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Abstract  

Montmorillonite-supported iron(III) nitrate and copper(II) nitrate reagents, and other supported metal nitrates prepared in the same way, were investigated by thermal and X-ray powder diffraction methods. The metal nitrates are present on the support in the form of crystalline hydrate and not as acetone solvate as supposed earlier. Thermal decomposition of metal nitrates that are active in model reactions proceeds in a different way from that of the practically inactive nitrates. In the former case, water release and nitrate decomposition itself are simultaneous process. These and other results contributed to determination of suitable reaction conditions for the montmorillonite-supported reagents.

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Abstract  

A number of 30 [Co(en)3 ]Y3 , [Co(en)2 X2 ]Y and [Co(en)2 X(amine)]Y2 type complexes (X =Cl, Br; Y =Cl, Br, I, NCO, NCS, NO3 , ClO4 , etc.; amine =aromatic and alkylamines) were obtained from trans-[Co(en)2 Cl2 ]Cl by double decomposition and by substitution reactions, respectively. The structure of the complexes was proved by means of far and middle FTIR spectra. The thermal decomposition was studied by TG, DTA and DSC measurements. Mass spectra were also recorded. In the case of [Co(en)3 ]Y3 complexes the nitrate, perchlorate and dimesoperiodates decompose suddenly, frequently explosion like. The halides and thiocyanates seem to substitute an ethylenediamine ligand, yielding a rather unstable intermediate. The pyrolysis of [Co(en)2 X2 ]Y type derivatives yields no relatively stable intermediates, but the decomposition temperatures may be correlated with the nature of Y and with the cis or trans configuration of the compound. With the [Co(en)2 X(amine)]Y2 type complexes one observes the formation of [Co(en)2 XY]Y as intermediate product. From the TG curves kinetic parameters were derived for some dehydration and deamination processes, by using the nomogram method. The validity of a non-linear kinetic compensation law was observed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Bajdik, K. Pintye-Hódi, Cs. Novák, P. Szabó-Révész, G. Regdon, I. Erős, and G. Pokol

Abstract  

Dimenhydrinate is a heat-sensitive antihistamine with a low melting point. The heat-sensitive feature is of importance if direct compression is used. Direct measurement of the heat originating in the texture of tablets during compression is very difficult. Thermoanalytical methods were used as indirect methods to describe the changes in material properties at high temperature: differential scanning calorimetry, thermomicroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Film coating method is widely used in pharmaceutical technology. A fluidized bed apparatus was applied to coat the crystals. The coating film forming agent was hydroxy-propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC), which is a gastric-soluble polymer. Thermoanalytical measurements reveal that dimenhydrinate crystals are sensitive to heat. Film coating method does not alter the shape of the DSC curve of dimenhydrinate, but increases the melting point. The presence of a macromolecular film reduces the thermal conductivity, because it separates the particles.

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Abstract  

This paper discusses the changes in the structure and thermal reduction of nanosize hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze (HATB), (NH4)0.33−xWO3−y, which were caused by K+ ion exchange (doping) and studied by XRD, XPS, 1H-MAS NMR, FTIR, SEM and TG/DTA-MS. Comparison of the cell parameters of undoped and doped HATB revealed that both a and c cell parameters decreased after the ion exchange reaction, which showed that smaller K+ ions partly replaced the larger NH4 + ions in the hexagonal channels of HATB. After the reaction, from the hexagonal channels less NH3 evolved, which also supported the incorporation of K+ ions into the hexagonal channels.

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On the oximine complexes of transitionmetals

Part CXIX. Thermal and spectral studies on Ni(Diox.H)2 type chelate compounds

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Cs. Várhelyi Jr., G. Pokol, Á. Gömöry, A. Gănescu, P. Sohár, G. Liptay, and Cs. Várhelyi

Abstract  

Fourteen chelates of the type [Ni(II)(Diox.H)2], ((Diox.H)2: various α-dioximes) have been studied by means of FTIR, NMR, MS data and various thermoanalytical methods (TG, DTA, DTG, DSC). In some cases kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition of the complexes were also calculated using Zsak’s ‘nomogram method’. The mechanism of the decomposition processes was characterised on the basis of mass spectra.

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Abstract  

A non-isothermal experimental study using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted for investigation the oxidation reactivity of natural phosphate and its demineralised products. The analyses were carried out in oxygen atmosphere and at different heating rate (5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60C min-1) up to 1000C. The results indicated that the material washed with HCl from the original phosphate, mainly apatite and carbonates of calcium and magnesium, as well as with HCl/HF, silicates minreals, had an inhibition effect during oxidation reactions of organic material. The increase of the heating rate shifted the reactions to higher temperatures. In addition, kinetic parameters were determined by assuming a single first-order kinetic model, using the Coats-Redfern method. The influences of demineralization process of natural phosphate and the heating rate were examined and discussed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: E. Turi, P. Haines, V. Mathot, G. Hakvoort, T. Hatakeyama, and G. Pokol

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