Authors:Kenichi Watanabe, R. Thandavarayan, N. Gurusamy, S. Zhang, A. Muslin, K. Suzuki, H. Tachikawa, M. Kodama, and Y. Aizawa
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a well-known and important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The occurrence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is independent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, or any other known cardiac diseases. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by morphologic and structural changes in the myocardium and coronary vasculature mediated by the activation of various signaling pathways. Myocardial apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis are the most frequently proposed mechanisms to explain cardiac changes in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mammalian 14-3-3 proteins are dimeric phosphoserine-binding proteins that participate in signal transduction and regulate several aspects of cellular biochemistry. 14-3-3 protein regulates diabetic cardiomyopathy via multiple signaling pathways. This review focuses on emerging evidence suggesting that 14-3-3 protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular complications of diabetes, which underlie the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Authors:N. Ishioka, H. Matsuoka, S. Watanabe, A. Osa, M. Koizumi, T. Kume, S. Matsuhashi, T. Fujimura, A. Tsuji, H. Uchida, and T. Sekine
The positron emitters11C,13N and18F and their labeled compounds have been produced for studies on plants using a newly developed positron emitting tracer imaging
system. Although this system covers, at present, a limited area in a plant, the distribution of the positron emitter fed into
the plant can be visualized dynamically. Further development of positron-emitter-labeled compounds is expected to elucidate
the physiological function of plants in vivo.
Authors:Y. Oura, R. Watanabe, M. Ebihara, Y. Murakami, Y. Toh, A. Kimura, M. Koizumi, K. Furutaka, M. Oshima, K. Hara, T. Kin, S. Nakamura, and H. Harada
A prompt gamma-ray analysis system using multiple detection method (MPGA system) was constructed at the neutron guide hall
of the JRR-3M reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. We applied MPGA method to geochemical and cosmochemical samples to
evaluate its analytical performance on signal to noise (S/N) ratio, sensitivity, and detection limit. The S/N ratio measured
by MPGA system was larger than that by normal prompt gamma ray activation analysis (PGAA) at JRR-3M. For some elements, the
S/N ratio was improved more than ten times. Several elements that are not detected by PGAA were detected by MPGA. At the present
time, concentrations of major elements and trace elements with high neutron capture cross section in geochemical and cosmochemical
samples were determined accurately by the MPGA system installed at JRR-3M. It is expected that it will determine a lot of
trace elements after appropriate adjustments and modifications.