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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Radojčić Redovniković
,
M. Repajić
,
S. Fabek
,
K. Delonga
,
N. Toth
, and
J. Vorkapić Furač

Numerous recent publications have compared different cultivars of broccoli and different cultivation conditions suggesting that great variations in the content of phytochemicals among cultivars are due to genetic, and many environmental factors. The purpose of the present work was the quantification of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity in the florescences of 13 genotypes from freshly harvested broccoli grown under uniform agroecological practices. The present results showed a significant variation in the level of bioactive compounds and consequently potential health benefits of broccoli (total glucosinolates 12.04–22.48 μmol g−1 d.w., the total phenolic content 15.54–26.92 mg g−1 d.w., total carotenoid content 0.19 mg g−1–0.46 mg g−1 d.w.). Studied cultivars were different in the level of the individual bioactive compounds, although some cultivars had higher content of all three analysed bioactive compounds such as Marathon, Ironman and General cultivar. In addition, these three cultivars showed excellent marketable properties and we choose them for the further breeding program in order to study variation among bioactive compounds in more details.

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Capsaicin is a well-known component of red pepper. Recent studies have shown that capsaicin could prevent gastric ulcer provoked by various NSAID-s like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Primary objective of this human clinical phase I trial was to investigate whether two different doses of capsaicin co-administered with ASA could alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation. 15 healthy male subjects were involved in the study and treated orally with 400 μg capsaicin, 800 μg capsaicin, 500 mg ASA, 400 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA and 800 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA. Blood was drawn before and 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after the drug administration. After that epinephrine induced platelet aggregation was measured by optical aggregometry. Between treatments, volunteers had a 6-day wash-out period. Our results showed that capsaicin had no effect on platelet aggregation, while as expected, ASA monotherapy resulted in a significant and clinically effective platelet aggregation inhibition (p ≤ 0.001). The combined ASA-capsaicin therapies reached equivalent effectiveness in platelet aggregation inhibition as ASA monotherapy. Our investigation proved that capsaicin did not influence the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation, thus the capsaicin-ASA treatment would combine the antiplatelet effect of ASA with the possible gastroprotection of capsaicin.

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The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Viktória Tóth
,
K. Antal
,
Gyöngyi Gyémánt
,
M. Miskei
,
I. Pócsi
, and
T. Emri

Coprogen production of Neurospora crassa was dependent on glucose, aspartate and iron contents as well as on initial pH of the culture media. Surplus iron and acidic pH hindered the production of coprogen as well as the transcription of the sid1 gene (NCU07117) encoding putative L-ornithine-N 5 -monooxygenase, the first enzyme in the coprogen biosynthetic pathway. High glucose (40 g/l) and aspartate (21 g/l) concentrations were beneficial for coprogen synthesis, but neither glucose nor aspartate affected the sid1 transcription. Moreover, efficient coprogen production was observed after glucose had been consumed, which suggested that N. crassa accumulated iron even in non-growing, carbon-starving cultures.

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To study the usefulness of 6β-hydroxycortisol (6βOHF) measurements for assessing hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme activity, plasma 6βOHF and cortisol were measured in 22 patients with alcoholic liver disease after at least 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, in 5 patients with severe Cushing's syndrome and in 12 healthy non-drinker subjects. Blood samples were drawn under resting conditions during midnight, in the morning at 0800 h, after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone test and after ACTH administration. Plasma cortisol and 6βOHF were determined with radioimmunoassay. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, the plasma cortisol levels at midnight and 0800 h, as well as after the administration of dexamethasone and ACTH were not different from corresponding values measured in non-drinker controls. In addition, these patients with alcoholic liver disease had similar plasma 6βOHF levels at midnight, 0800 h and after dexamethasone administration as compared to corresponding values in controls. By contrast, ACTH administration in patients with alcoholic liver disease resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) larger increase of plasma 6βOHF (from 106±22 to 1102±106 ng/dl, mean ± SE) as compared to that found in controls (from 74±3 to 337±76 ng/dl). The markedly increased 6βOHF response to ACTH administration in patients with alcoholic liver disease was similar to that measured in patients with severe Cushing's syndrome, in whom increased and non-suppressible plasma cortisol levels were accompanied by markedly elevated plasma 6βOHF levels. These results indicate that alcohol abstinence in patients with alcoholic liver disease is associated with an exaggerated 6βOHF response to ACTH and that this abnormality may prove to be a clinically useful parameter for a sensitive detection of altered drug metabolism present in these patients.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Osváth
,
Zs Mészáros
,
Sz Tóth
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Mavroudes
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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The present research was undertaken to screen for field activity of ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE), acetic acid (AA) and the blend of this two components (PEAA) at locations, where high diversity of microlepidopteran species was presumed. By tendency of relative catches, microlepidopterans captured could be divided into two groups: in the first group the PEAA blend resulted in higher catches than single components (Hedya nubiferana, Ypsolopha scabrella and Notocelia trimaculana), while in the second group (Archips rosana, A. xylosteana, Ptycholoma lecheana and Tortrix viridana) only the presence of AA was responsible for attractivity.

In all species, both male and female specimens were caught. This result indicates a potential way to optimise female-targeted lures based on PEAA or AA for all these microlepidopterans that are all recorded as pests. On the other hand, the capture of the above moths in the traps raises the need for some taxonomic knowledge in evaluating captures in PEAA-baited traps currently use in agricultural practice for codling moth monitoring.

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Abstract

The popularity of sweet potatoes in Central Europe has been increasing recently, mainly the high-quality, perfect, fresh tubers are in demand. However, out of class grade tubers could be marketed in dried, grounded form as sweet potato flour.

The aim of this study was to characterise some important nutritional properties of flours of three sweet potato genotypes with different tuber colours (white, purple, and orange) and to investigate how this raw material affects the rheological properties of sweet potato-wheat flour blends.

Dietary fibres are present in sweet potatoes in a significant proportion, orange coloured flour showed the highest values. The main free sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but sucrose was the dominant one. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content also varied considerably, the purple flour had the highest values. Mineral composition showed significant variability, the purple flour contained the highest level of minerals. It was confirmed that adding sweet potato flour to wheat flour affected its rheological properties, however in a varied manner. For the orange flour these properties have lightly decreased, though it had no significant effect on dough quality, while the white and purple flours with a dosage of 5, 10 and 15% could improve the dough behaviour. Thus, sweet potato in this form is a valuable raw material.

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Tóth
,
A. Nagy
,
I. Szarukán
,
K. Ary
,
A. Cserenyec
,
B. Fenyődi
,
D. Gombás
,
T. Lajkó
,
L. Merva
,
J. Szabó
,
P. Winkler
, and
J. K. Jósvai

The addition of synthetic (E)-anethol to the known attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the blend invariably catching 4 to 6 times more than phenylacetaldehyde on its own. Highest catches were recorded by the 1:1-3:1 blends. The addition of salicyl aldehyde, ±linalool, (R)-(+)-limonene, 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (compounds described earlier in the literature as co-attractants for H. armigera), increased catches when added to phenylacetaldehyde. However, the addition of these compounds did not increase catches of the (E)-anethol+pheny- lacetaldehyde blend. When directly compared with performance of the synthetic pheromone, the (E)-anethol +phenylacetaldehyde blend caught an average of 27% of the catch in pheromone baited traps. On an average 79% of moths caught in traps with the (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend were females, while traps with pheromone caught only males. The (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend described in this study may form the basis for the development of an efficient bisexual lure for H. armigera AFTER further optimization.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
K. Török
,
K. Szilágyi
,
K. Halász
,
V. Zsigmond
,
G. Kósa
,
T. Rédei
,
E. Peti
,
J. Schellenberger
,
Z. Tóth
, and
K. Szitár

Seed bank collections have multiple benefits: store genetic material for conservation and research, and their data can also provide valuable scientific information. The Pannon Seed Bank was established during an EU LIFE+ project between 2010 and 2014 with the target to collect and store seeds of approx. 50% of the wild native vascular flora of the Pannonian Biogeographic Region, seed accessions of at least 800 storable species. This task was fully achieved by the end of the project, as altogether 1,853 seed accessions of 910 species are stored. The aim of the present paper is to provide access to the collection data and metadata of the Pannon Seed Bank as it was completed by the end of the project. The collection campaign involved about 40 experts and covered the whole country. Collection and storing applied standard methodology, based on the ENSCONET project. The collection data published in this paper can be used manifold. Geographical data on species occurrences are major input for nature conservation and research. Seed collection date is valuable for ecological studies of phytophagous insects, frugivorous birds and mammals, etc. The database can be partner to international databases (like GBIF) or research infrastructures (e.g. LifeWatch). Hopefully, this data paper will contribute to further motivate the development of native seed collections and their use for conservation and research in Hungary.

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