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Three different insecticides: dimethoate, cypermethrin and amitraz were given, alone or combined with the heavy metals Pb, Hg and Cd, to male Wistar rats per os for 12 weeks from their 4th week of life. After the treatment period, the left hemisphere of the rats was exposed in urethane anaesthesia, and spontaneous and evoked cortical activity was recorded from the primary sensory areas. The effects of dimethoate on the spontaneous activity, and of dimethoate and amitraz on the evoked responses, were increased by the metal combination treatment, whereby the metals alone had no effect on the spontaneous and mild effect on the evoked activity. Finally, the animals were dissected, organ weights measured, and relative organ weights calculated. The weight gain of all treated groups was significantly retarded compared to the control. Several organ weights were also significantly reduced, mainly in groups receiving insecticide plus metal treatment. The toxic interactions observed in this work indicate that combined human exposure to environmental pesticide residues and heavy metals may have unexpectedly severe effects.

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The first steps in studies on the female and male gametophytes of wheat involved the light microscope analysis of semi-thin sections of embryo sacs containing egg-cells developing in planta. The information thus obtained on the development of the egg-cell from its initial formation to maturity contributed to the successful isolation of egg-cells. The morphological and ultrastructural details of egg-cells isolated 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days after emasculation were examined to determine the function of the female gametophyte and its suitability for micromanipulation. A sufficient number of gametoplasts in the right stage of development are required for the successful microinjection and in vitro fusion of egg-cells and male gametes. No data are yet available on the fusiogenicity of wheat egg-cells in various stages of development. Various in vitro fertilisation and microinjection techniques could be of service in gamete fusion experiments aimed at the creation of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids which do not occur in nature due to sporophytic incompatibility. The results acquired in investigations on immature embryos can be used for the study of embryos developing from egg-cells fertilised in vitro.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Kumar Singh
,
L. Balogh
, and
K. Szabó

Sanita di Toppi, L. and Pawlik-Skowronska, B. (eds) (2003): Abiotic stresses in plants. - Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 231 pp. (ISBN 1-4020-1648-4); Weber, E. (2003): Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. - CAB International Publishing, Wallingford, 548 pp. (ISBN 0-85199-695-7); Werum, M. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004): Diatoms in springs from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrogeology and anthropogenic impacts. pp. 9-417. Reichardt, E. (2004): Eine bemerkenswerte Diatomeenassoziation in einem Quellhabitat im Grazer Bergland, Österreich. pp. 419-480. - In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (ed.): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Vol. 13. Ecology-Hydrogeology-Taxonomy. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag K. G. Ruggel, 480 pp.;

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Introduction

Malnutrition inhibits children from normal development and leads to irreversible consequences with respect to mental and physical performance.

Materials and methods

We analysed the aggregate data in the 2013–2015 reports of regional visiting nurses on the nutritional status of Hungarian children at the ages of 1, 3, and 5 years. In the regions of Hungary, stratum-specific proportions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of children with lower than a 10th percentile score.

Results

The proportions of malnutrition among children whose score was below the 10th percentile nationwide were 8.14% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 1, 6.87% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 3, and 5.68% [5.59%–5.78%] at age 5. In all three age groups, the proportion of children below the 10th percentile was significantly lower in the Central Hungarian region than in the national reference proportion and in Northern Hungary and the Southern Great Plain.

Discussion and conclusions

These results indicate that Hungary’s incidence of malnutrition is no better than the worldwide average. To improve this situation, Hungarian healthcare professionals must at least begin following a precise, standardized protocol for the compulsory assessment of nutritional status in the framework of their reporting on the primary care of children.

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Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, using photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. This paper introduces the solar power station in Fish Country, in Hungary. The examined solar power station (50 kWp) consists of 200 pieces of polycrystalline silicon Kyocera solar panels. The efficiency of this power station was measured and calculated in order to determine its amortization period and the amount of prevented CO2 emission as a consequence of this technology. The results of the measurement and calculation of the efficiency demonstrate that the facility fulfils the committed requirements. Nowadays, the air pollution is considered as one of the major causes of the global warming. This is reflected by the EU restriction of the emissions. The solar power station, which was built by Aranyponty Halászati Ltd., contributed to reduce the local CO2 emission, but it has impact on the global level as well, because circa 50 tons of carbon dioxide is prevented to be emitted into the atmosphere per year.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
Á. K. Kiss
,
K. Szabó
,
M. K. Singh
, and
L. Gy. Szabó

Hausmann, K., Hülsmann, N. and Radek, R. (2003): Protistology, 3rd completely revised edition. - E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 379 pp. (With  384 figures and 22 tables); Krammer, K. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004): Achnanthaceae. Kritische Ergänzungen zu Achnanthes s. l., Navicula s. str., Gomphonema. Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis Teil 2/4. Ergänzter Nachdruck. - In: Ettl, et al. (eds) (2004): Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2/4. Bacillariophyceae 4. Teil. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, 468 pp.; Larkum, A. W. D., Douglas, S. E. and Raven, J. A. (eds) (2003): Photosynthesis in algae. - In: Govindjee (ed.): Advances in photosynthesis and respiration. Volume 14. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 479 pp.; Magurran, A. E. (ed.) (2003): Measuring Biological Diversity. - Blackwell Science Ltd., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 260 pp. (ISBN-632-05633-9); Pena, L. (ed.) (2004): Transgenic plants - methods and protocols (Methods in molecular biology, Vol. 286). - Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 437 pp. (ISBN 1-59259-827-7);

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The sugar composition of the floral nectar was studied in 22 mainly Hungarian local quince cultivars in 2004. The material for investigation was taken from the quince genebank of the Research and Extension Centre for Fruitgrowing, Újfehértó, Hungary. The three main sugar components of the nectar were glucose, fructose and sucrose. Sucrose was present in the greatest amount in the nectar of all investigated quince cultivars. Glucose which is the least sweet among the three main nectar sugars for bees was present in the least amount. The nectar of most cultivars contained more fructose than glucose. The amount of the total nectar sugars was the lowest in cv. 'Pear-shaped Noszvaji' and the highest in cv. 'Kúti'. According to the Baker-quotient (S/F+G), the majority of the quince cultivars belonged to the sucrose dominant category. However, the cultivars 'Mezőkövesdi', 'Apple-shaped Dunabogdány' and 'Váli' had sucrose-rich nectar. The concentration of floral secretory product in all cultivars reached the threshold of bee visitation. The nectar refraction was lower at the end of bloom than in full bloom while flowers contained more nectar at the previous stage. The above results are important from the viewpoint of pollination biology, apiculture and defence against fire blight.

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The possibilities and economic benefits of controlling mycoplasmal pneumonia of pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by immunisation with Respisure and by Tiamutin treatment were studied. The experiment was carried out in a herd comprising 1000 sows which was free of PRRS, Aujeszky's disease, swine dysentery and leptospirosis, and the prevalence of mycoplasmal pneumonia was low because the farm had recently been restocked. Groups C1 and C2 served as untreated controls, while Groups R1 and R2 received a prestarter diet containing 100 ppm Tiamutin from the time of weaning. Piglets of Group R1 were vaccinated with Respisure vaccine once on day 69, while those of Group R2 twice, on days 65 and 80. Piglets of Groups ST1 and ST2 were fed 100 ppm Tiamutin in the diet for 7 days at the time of weaning and then at 4 months of age, while pigs of Group ST2 received such treatment also in the 6th month of life. The efficacy of treatment was analysed on the basis of the number of animals that died, were emergency slaughtered or were retarded in growth in the different groups, the body weight of animals at weaning, at 94 and 148 days of age and at the time of slaughter, their daily body weight gain, the lung lesions found in animals slaughtered from the different groups, the costs of medication and vaccination, and the cost-benefit calculations of the results. The mortality and emergency slaughter rate was 2.88% and 4.62% in Groups ST2 and ST1, respectively, 4.23% and 4.62% in Groups R2 and R1, respectively, and 8.39% and 9.44% in the control groups (C2 and C1, respectively). The rate of growth retardation was 0.48% and 2.12% in Groups R1 and R2, respectively, 1.59% and 3.46% in Groups ST1 and ST2, respectively, as compared to 8.03% and 6.55% in the control groups (C1 and C2, respectively). The severity score of lung lesions was 1.82 and 1.46 in Groups R1 and R2, 2.18 and 2.93 in Groups ST1 and ST2, and 3.83 and 4.02 in the control groups C1 and C2, respectively. The mean finishing weight of pigs was 102.4-107.8 kg and 95.2-106.6 kg in the treated groups and 94.5-98.6 kg in the control groups. The classification of pigs according to the EUROP categories showed a shift to the E and U categories in the treated groups. The average feed cost per one kg of liveweight was 77.89-82.64 Forints in the treated groups and 85.66 Forints in the control groups.

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The basic institutions and legal frames of a market economy were established quite quickly after the regime change in East-Central Europe, including Hungary. But there has been a much slower change in the behaviour of economic actors. The purpose of the research was to show the extent to which the competitive attitude and the cooperative behaviour both essential to market economies have developed in the nearly two decades since the regime change.* Are the actors in the economy capable of a positive response to the appearance of foreign competitors, or has the old, anti-competitive attitude still been prevailing? How is the behaviour of the competitors influenced by state intervention? The answers to these questions are based on 71 semi-structured interviews and on their comparison to the data of some international surveys. In the paper we were searching for links between the picture developing from the interviews and the age of the interviewees, the market position and the size of their firms.

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Abstract  

The purpose of this study was to further characterize the altered metabolism spondylolisthesis that promotes disease progression. Degenerative human cartilage (intervertebral disc, facet joint and vertebral end-plate) was obtained during 15 posterior lumbar spine interbody fusion procedures performed at the University of Szeged. The thermal properties of samples were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler-Toledo DSC 821e). Greatest change in the enthalpy was observed in the intervertebral disc samples: −1600.78 J g−1. Denaturation caused by heating in the normal human hyaline cartilage needed −1493.31 J g−1 energy. Characterization of the altered metabolism that promotes disease progression should lead to future treatment options.

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