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Abstract

The objective of this study was to use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of ovine-associated staphylococci. Presumptive Staphylococcus isolates were recovered from ovine udder surface (US), individual raw milk, bulk tank milk, and cheese samples and were characterised by conventional phenotypic methods. A total of 69 bacterial isolates were further confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty-two (60.9%) of 69 isolates were successfully identified on genus and species level. Two thirds (n = 28) of the 42 identified isolates were shown to be Staphylococcus spp. These 28 staphylococcal isolates formed two clusters, one consisting of 22 Staphylococcus aureus strains and the other composed of 6 non-aureus staphylococci, including S. simulans (n = 3), S. auricularis, S. equorum, and S. haemolyticus. MALDI-TOF MS has proven to be a reliable tool for the identification of staphylococci from raw sheep's milk, especially bulk tank milk; however, currently it appears to be less useful for the identification of bacterial isolates originating from ovine US samples. This is the first study to evaluate the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Staphylococcus spp. in ovine raw milk, cheese, and US samples in Hungary.

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Forest conversion to anthropogenic uses is a generalized phenomenon throughout tropical Latin America. We evaluated whether patches of secondary forest, which develop relatively rapidly after field abandonment, contribute to conservation of phyllostomid bat assemblages. Our objective was to compare patterns of phyllostomid bat abundance and the structure and composition of phyllostomid bat assemblages across three forest types in the northern neotropics of eastern Mexico. We studied phyllostomid bats within secondary evergreen, primary semi-deciduous, and primary evergreen forests. For each forest type, three representative sites were sampled with mist nets once during the dry season and once during the rainy season for a total of nine sites. Richness, diversity, and assemblage composition patterns were compared among forest types for all phyllostomid species, and for three groups of sensitivity to habitat fragmentation. Abundance of individual species was also compared among forest types. A total of 646 individual bats from 15 species, 11 of which were phyllostomids, were registered. Combining both seasons, more than 250 captures were accomplished at both the primary evergreen and secondary evergreen forests, and only 81 individuals were caught at primary semi-deciduous forests. Overall richness and diversity of species and sensitivity groups were greater in the rainy than the dry season. Richness was greater in secondary evergreen than in primary semi-deciduous forests, and diversity was greatest in the primary evergreen, intermediate in the secondary evergreen, and lowest in the primary semi-deciduous forest. Some overlap in composition was also evident, although there was separation between forest types and seasons. Mean abundances were higher for some species at primary evergreen and secondary evergreen forests, but were threefold lower (though not significantly) in secondary evergreen forests in the dry season for some other species. We also found that primary evergreen forests have the greatest importance for phyllostomids during the dry season. These results suggest that maintenance of secondary evergreen forests, which cover a large proportion of the northeastern Mexican neotropics, would contribute to the conservation of diverse tropical bat communities. Therefore, large areas of this forest type should necessarily be incorporated in the landscape.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
L. Stipkovits
,
Á Dán
,
Erika Varga
,
Paula De Santis
,
Rosella Lelly
,
Éva Kaszanyitzky
,
Ildikó Ferenczné Paluska
,
M. Tenk
,
L. Tekes
, and
B. Harrach

At abattoirs and farms, 1248 sera were collected from animals representing 121 farms, and examined by complement fixation test using Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) antigen. All sera were negative except seven from four farms, giving ++ reactions in the serum dilution of 1:10. On retesting, these sera and additional 30 sera collected repeatedly in both farms gave negative results. In isolation attempts, 953 lung samples collected from slaughtered cattle at the same abattoirs, and 326 nasal swabs collected from 11 herds proved to be negative for the presence of MmmSC, but M. bovis was isolated frequently. In the small farms 23.95% of the animals had pleurisy and/or pneumonia while in the large herds 34.69% had lesions. DNA extracted from 50 nasal swabs and 430 lung samples was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using M. mycoides cluster-specific primers. DNA from further 325 lung samples was tested by the more specific M. mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony/large colony/capri specific primers and 196 samples by nested PCR specific for MmmSC. All gave negative results. The detection level of cluster-specific primers and the more specific primers was 33.4 pg of DNA, whereas that of nested PCR was 0.33 pg.

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The plasmid profiles of virulent Rhodococcus equistrains isolated on three horse-breeding farms located in different parts of Hungary were investigated. From 49 soil samples collected on the three farms, 490 R. equiisolates (10 from each sample) were obtained and tested for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) by immunoblotting and PCR. Ninety-eight VapA-positive isolates were detected from 30 of the 49 culture-positive samples with a prevalence ranging from 13.1% to 23.2%. Of the 98 virulent isolates, 70 contained an 85-kb type I plasmid, 13 contained an 87-kb type I plasmid, and 15 contained an 85-kb type III plasmid which had been uniquely isolated from soil isolates in the United States. This study demonstrates that the virulent form of R. equiis very widespread in the soil environment of these stud farms in Hungary and the plasmid pattern is different from farm to farm.

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Abstract  

Within the frame of a joint project, the accumulation of the uranium and transuranium (TRU) species on some structural materials used at Soviet made VVER-type pressurized water reactors (such as heat exchanger tube of steam generators and stainless steel canister material) has been studied. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory model system. During the sorption studies, boric acid coolants provided by the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP) were circulated for a period of 30 h. Solution and tube samples obtained in the course of above experiments were analyzed by independent methods (α- and γ-spectrometry, ICP-MS, SEM-EDX, voltammetry and XPS). The experimental results reveal that: (i) the surface excess of the TRU nuclides studied is extremely low (less than 1% of a monolayer coverage); (ii) the surface excess of uranium species measured on the SG tube surfaces is significantly higher, after 30 h sorption period (Γsample = 1.0 μg cm−2 U ≅ 3.7 × 10−9 mol cm−2 UO2) exceeds a monolayer coverage; (iii) the mechanistic features of the contamination processes (specific or non-specific adsorption, deposition of colloidal and/or disperse particles) depend decisively upon the nature of the studied radionuclides and the chemical structure and composition of the oxide layer formed on stainless steel surfaces.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Czelleng
,
Z. Bozsó
,
P. Ott
,
E. Besenyei
,
G. Varga
,
A. Szatmári
,
E. Szabó
,
L. Zsiros
, and
Z. Klement

Compared to the known method of conjugation the frequency of transposon mutagenesis following conjugation was enhanced 11-fold by two hours of pre-incubation of recipient Pseudomonas viridiflava 1 on conjugation media. The increased frequency was ƒ = 1.3 × 10 −4 . In other species of Pseudomonas, Pectobacteira and Xanthomonas high rates of transposon mutants were similarly obtained; however, in these strains the increased frequency was less than 5-fold.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Csapó
,
J. Schmidt
,
Zs. Csapó-Kiss
,
G. Holló
,
I. Holló
,
L. Wágner
,
É. Cenkvári
,
É. Varga-Visi
,
G. Pohn
, and
G. Andrássy-Baka

In the past years several methods have been developed for the determination of the proportion of the nitrogen-containing substances of microbial origin passed from the rumen into the abomasum or the small intestine. Recently, on examining the D-amino acid content of foodstuffs, particularly milk and milk products, it has been observed that, in addition to D-Ala, D- glutamic acid (D-Glu) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) can also be detected in similar quantities, primarily in products which have links with bacterial activity. This gave rise to the idea of examining the diaminopimelic acid (DAPA), D-Glu and D-Asp content of bacteria extracted from the rumen of cattle and that of chyme from the same cattle, in order to determine the type of relation existing among these three components, and to establish whether D-Asp and D-Glu can be used in the estimation of protein of bacterial origin. On determination of the DAPA, D-Asp and D-Glu content by means of amino acid analyser and high performance liquid chromatography of duodenal chyme from five growing bulls and of ruminal bacteria from the same bulls, the following values were established. For chyme (and, in brackets, for ruminal bacteria) r value calculated by means of linear regression was 0.78 (0.76) between DAPA and D-Asp, and 0.70 (0.81) between DAPA and D-Glu. The r values between the crude protein content of ruminal bacteria and the markers examined were found to be the following: DAPA, 0.74; D-Asp, 0.73; D- Glu, 0.61. In the model experiment performed for the re-obtaining of values for protein of bacterial origin the theoretical values were determined on the basis of D-Asp and D-Glu and values approximately 10% higher than the theoretical value on the basis of DAPA. It is therefore recommended that in addition to DAPA these other two amino acids be included among the bacterial protein markers.

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors:
ZS. Molnár
,
L. Varga
,
G. Gyenes
,
Á. Lehotsky
,
E. Gradvohl
,
Á.J. Lukács
,
R.A. Füzi
,
A. Gézsi
,
A. Falus
, and
H.J. Feith

Abstract

Purpose

Proper handwashing helps prevent the spread of communicable diseases. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare children's knowledge and skills in hand hygiene before and after school interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our peer education programme.

Materials/methods

In our longitudinal study, short- and long-term changes in the knowledge, hand-washing skills and health behaviour of 224 lower, upper and secondary school students were assessed. Our measurements were performed with a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire and the Semmelweis Scanner.

Results

As a result of the intervention, the proportion of correct answers increased significantly both in the short term and in the long run compared to the input measurements, but age differences did not disappear for most variables. There is a difference in the process of learning theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Areas not used for handwashing in the paediatric population are different from those described for adults in the literature. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the right and left hands.

Conclusions

There was a significant positive change in both theory and practice of handwashing. In education, emphasis should also be put on long-term retention of theoretical knowledge in age-specific health promotion programmes within the paediatric population.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Éva Virágh
,
Dóra Horváth
,
Zoltán Lőcsei
,
László Kovács
,
Rita Jáger
,
Bernadett Varga
,
Gábor Kovács L.
, and
Erzsébet Salamonné Toldy

Bevezetés: Az utóbbi időben egyre több adat támasztja alá a megfelelő D-vitamin-bevitel egészségmegőrző jelentőségét. Cél: A vizsgálat célja a D-vitamin-ellátottság felmérése volt Vas megye véradói és idősebb önkéntesei körében. Módszer: A szerzők 178 felnőttben (68 férfi, 110 nő, utóbbiak közül 41 orális fogamzásgátlót szedett) meghatározták a szérum-25-hidroxi-D-vitamin-, intakt parathormon-, kalcium-, albumin- (Cobas, Modular, Roche) és alfa-2-globulin-koncentrációkat (Gelelfo, Interlab), az eredményeket a nemek és az életkor (43 évesnél fiatalabb és idősebb) szerint analizálták, figyelembe véve az antikoncipiens szedését is. Eredmények: D-vitamin-hiányt 9,6%-ban, -elégtelenséget 32,0%-ban, megfelelő ellátottságot 58,4%-ban találtak. Az idősebbek 63%-a, illetve a fiatalok 41,2%-a (p<0,01) bizonyult szuboptimális D-vitamin-ellátottságúnak. Orális fogamzásgátlót szedő nőkben a szérum-25-hidroxi-D-vitamin és alfa-2-globulin magasabb, a szérumkalcium- és -albuminszint szignifikánsan alacsonyabb volt a fogamzásgátlót nem szedőkhöz képest, míg az intakt parathormon szintekben nem volt szignifikáns különbség. Következtetések: A megfigyelt szuboptimális D-vitamin-ellátottság jelentős mértékű, bár ritkábban fordult elő az irodalmi adatokhoz képest. Az orális fogamzásgátlót szedő nőkben észlelt szignifikánsan magasabb szérum-25-hidroxi-D-vitamin-szint ellenére az intakt parathormon szintek nem voltak alacsonyabbak a kontrollhoz viszonyítva. Utóbbi eredmények felhívják a figyelmet arra, hogy az emelkedett szérum-25-hidroxi-D-vitamin-szinteket az ösztrogénhatásra módosult fehérjefrakciók okozhatják. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1629–1637.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Santana Romero
,
F. Martínez Luzardo
,
E. Codorniú Hernández
,
L. Vargas Guerra
,
P. Melo Cala
,
M. García Guillén
,
K. Isaac Olivé
,
P. Estevez
,
A. Roque Córdoba
, and
M. Benítez

Abstract  

Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic plants secondary metabolites, widely distributed in all parts of trees and herbs. The role of these substances in many metabolic processes is very important. Vegetable tannins have been implicated as probable antinutritional factors, decreasing the assimilation of diet protein assimilation by cattle. On the other hand, protective antioxidant and antimutagenic properties have been ascribed for these compounds. Characterization of vegetable tannins is important in order to find new sources of natural raw materials with medical and pharmaceutical applications. Protein precipitation capacity as a function of pH, competitive protein and ADN binding assays and the determination of tannins concentration are described. Radioisotope labeled protein and tannins were used in all of the determinations.

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