Aqueous chloramine-B /C6H5SO2NCl Na/ solution is known to contain species like RNCl–, RNHCl, RNCl2, RN+H2Cl, HOCl and H2+OCl where R=C6H5SO2. The exchange studies between36Cl and CAB carried out in various media by ion-exchange method indicated that there is no exchange in solution at pH7. As the pH is decreased below 7, the extent of exchange increases reaching a maximum at pH 3. 3. The exchange decreases as the acidity is increased between pH 3.3 and 1N and again the exchange increases beyong 1N. The observed increase in exchange in strong acid medium is due to the evolution of chlorine.
The present study deals with the ontogeny, structure and development of Cardiospermum halicacabum fruit and the mode of its dehiscence. The trigonous, pyriform and bladdery capsular fruit of C. halicacabum develops from a 3-celled ovary with one ovule in each cell. The ovary wall is 5 to 7 cell layers thick. The outer epidermis of the ovary wall develops into a single-layered epicarp. The isodiametric cells of developing epicarp contain abundant tanniniferous contents. The 3 or 4 layers thick ground parenchyma of ovary wall constitutes the mesocarp. The thin walled cells of developing mesocarp are found to get apart from each other, as their elongation is meagre, to keep pace with the increment in the circumference of fruit. The tangentially elongated cells of inner epidermis of ovary wall form a single layered endocarp. The endocarpic cells of developing fruit do not exhibit much structural changes, except vacuolation. Due to the disintegration of thin walled parenchyma cells situated throughout the length of the septum and rupture of similar type of cells located in between two lateral vascular bundles, the ripe capsule of C. halicacabum dehisces septicidally.
Authors:G. Rama Rao, V. Manchanda, and P. Natarajan
Present work summairzes a method for the estimation of uranium in the presence of plutonium involving the reduction of uranium to U/IV/ and plutonium to Pu/III/ by Zn/Hg/ followed by the selective oxidation of Pu/III/to Pu/IV/with HNO3 catalyzed by molybdate in the presence of large sulphate concenration [5M H2SO4+1.5M /NH4/2SO4]. The oxidation of U/IV/ by K2Cr2O7 is then carried out in the presence of excess of Fe/III/ and Al/NO3/3 to a sharp potentiometric end point. R.S.D. obtained for 20 determinations of uranium /3–6 mg/ was 0.3% in the presence of 0.35 mg of plutonium. Larger quantity for plutonium was found to interfere.
The kinetics of chlorine isotope exchange between chloramine-B /CAB/ and chloride has been studied using ion-exchange separation and tracer technique. McKay's plot are linear. The exchange reaction is fast in acidic medium, very slow in neutral medium and does not take place in alkaline medium. In the acidic range the exchange is maximum at pH 3.3. The rate of exchange decreases at pH >3.3 and <3.3. The order with respect to CAB and chloride is unity. The order with respect to [H+] is unity at pH>5. Addition of neutral salt or parent compound has no effect on the rate of exchange. Activation energy and activation entropy for this exchange reaction have been calculated.
The stability constants of the complex of Pu/III/ with a humic acid at pH 2.9 and 5.0 were measured using solvent-extraction technique. The organic extractant was dinonyl naphthalene sulphonic acid in sodium form /NaD/ in benzene while the humate aqueous phase had a constant ionic strength of 0.5M /NaClO4/. The total carboxylate capacity of the humic acid was determined by direct potentiometric titration to be 6.201 Meq g–1. The apparent pKa increased as the degree of ionization // increased. The 1g
1 values of the complex of Pu/III/ with humic acid have been determined to be 2.8 and 3.11 at pH 2.9 and 5.0, respectively.
Authors:Yeshwant Naik, G. Rama Rao, and V. Venugopal
The separation characteristics of hydrogen-tritium mixtures by gas chromatography at 77 K have been studied using molecular sieve 4A, coated with 5 wt% vanadium in the form of V2O4, as supporting material. The performance of the column was found to be better than that observed on the conventional coated and uncoated molecular sieves in terms of reduced retention times, resolution, nature of the peak and added thermal stability of the stationary phase.
Authors:V. Bhargava, V. Rao, S. Marathe, S. Sahakundu, and R. Iyer
A radiochemical method is described for the separation of heavier rare earths from the fission of uranium. The method is particularly
suitable for the separation of low yield (10−5%–10−7%), highly asymmetric rare earth fission products viz.179,177Lu,175Yb,173Tm,172,171Er,167Ho and161,160Tb in the neutron induced fission of natural and depleted uranium targets. Additional separation steps have been incorporated
for decontamination from239Np (an activation product) and93-90Y (a high fission-yield product) which show similar chemical behaviour to rare earths. Separation of individual rare earths
is achieved by a cation exchange method performed at 80°C by elution with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA).
Authors:S. Sahakundu, S. Marathe, V. Rao, V. Bhargava, and R. Iyer
A new method for obtaining radiochemically pure67Cu from highly active fission product solutions is described. The method is based on the solvent extraction of the Cu(II)-diethyldithiocarbamate
complex in n-butyl acetate in the presence of hold-back carriers for Ni, Co, Mn, Mo, rare earths, Cd, Te and Sb, and subsequent
purification steps involving scavengings for Ag, Ba, Sr and Fe followed by an anion-exchange purification step for decontamination
from Te. Copper is finally extracted as the α-benzoin oxime complex in which form it is mounted and counted. The method has
several advantages over other methods in that decontamination is very high and it is sufficiently fast considering the stringent
radiochemical purity achieved. The67Cu separated by this procedure from a one-day-old mixture of fission products arising from 1010 fissions was found to be completely free of any contamination.