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Abstract  

The thermal behaviors of four organic solvents with/without LiPF6 were measured by C80 microcalorimeter at a 0.2�C min−1 heating rate. With the addition of 1 M LiPF6, the ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) show the exothermic peaks at elevated temperature, which lessen their stabilities. The exothermic peak temperatures of EC and PC based LiPF6 solutions are at 212 and 223�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. However, two endothermic peak temperatures were detected in diethyl carbonate (DEC) based LiPF6 solution at 182 and 252.5�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187�C in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. Consequently, it is concluded that LiPF6 play a key role in the thermal behavior of its organic solution.

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Gastrodia elata Blume polysaccharide (GEP) was extracted and then chemically characterised. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results of the in vitro investigation show that GEP consists of glucose with molecular weight of 875 185 Da and exhibits high hydroxyl radical scavenging, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl activity and reducing capacity. For antioxidant activity in vivo, D-galactose-induced-aged mice were orally administered with three different doses of GEP over a period of 6 weeks. The administration of GEP dosedependently increased the body weight gain rates, liver and brain indices, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and malondialdehyde levels in the sera and brains of ageing mice. These results suggest that GEP exhibits high antioxidant activity and can retard human ageing associated with free radicals.

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Genotypes with various Vp-1B alleles perform different levels of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. In this study, 217 white-grained wheat cultivars, including 75 landraces, 39 historical cultivars, and 103 modern cultivars from five major regions of China, were examined to characterize the diversity of the Viviparous-1B ( Vp-1B ) locus associated with PHS tolerance. Four Vp-1B alleles were identified, three ( Vp-1Ba , Vp-1Bb and Vp-1Bc ) of which were previously reported in Chinese wheat cultivars. A new allele, Vp-1Be , was identified in the PHS tolerant landrace Hongheshangtou. Sequence analysis showed that Vp-1Be had an insertion of a 4-bp fragment, two SNPs, and a deletion of an 83-bp fragment compared with the nucleotide sequence of Vp-1Ba (AJ400713), all located in the third intron. Vp-1Be shared 97.80% similarity with the nucleotide sequence of AJ400713. The frequencies of Vp-1Ba , Vp-1Bb , and Vp-1Bc were 36.0%, 5.3%, and 57.3% in landraces; 23.1%, 7.7%, and 69.2% in historical cultivars; and 52.4%, 0%, and 47.6% in current cultivars, respectively.

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Abstract

Thermal decomposition of N,N′-diphenylguanidine (DPG) was investigated by simultaneous TG/DSC-FTIR techniques under nonisothermal conditions. Online FTIR measurements illustrate that aniline is a major product of DPG decomposition. The observation that the activation energy depends on the extent of conversion indicates that the DPG decomposition kinetics features multiple processes. The initial elimination of aniline from DPG involves two pathways because of the isomerization of DPG. Mass spectrometry and thin film chromatography suggest that there are two major intermediate products with the major one of C21N3H17. The most probable kinetic model deduced through multivariate nonlinear regression method agrees well with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The temperature-independent function of conversion f(α), activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor A of DPG decomposition was also established through model-fitting method in this research.

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Two new y-type HMW-GSs in Ae. tauschii , 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t with the mobility order of 1Dy12.2 t > 1Dy12.1* t > 1Dy12.1 t >1Dy12, were identified by both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that the genes encoding subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t had identical nucleotide acid sequences with 1,947 bp encoding a mature protein of 627 residues. Their deduced molecular weights were 67,347.6 Da, satisfactorily corresponding to that of 1Dy12.2 t subunit determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (67,015.7 Da), but was significantly smaller than that of the the 1Dy12.1* t subunit (68,577.1 Da). Both subunits showed high similarities to 1Dy10, suggesting that they could have a positive effect on bread-making quality. Interestingly, the expressed protein of the cloned ORF from accessions TD87 and TD130 in E. coli co-migrated with subunit 1Dy12.2 t , but moved slightly faster than 1Dy12.1* t on SDS-PAGE. The expressed protein in transgenic tobacco seeds, however, had the same mobility as the 1Dy12.1* t subunit, as confirmed by both SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Although direct evidence of phosphoprotein could not be obtained by specific staining method, certain types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the 1Dy12.1* t subunit could not be excluded. We believe PTMs might be responsible for the molecular weight difference between the subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t .

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Abstract  

On the basis of the theory of thermokinetics proposed in the literature, a novel thermokinetic method for determination of the reaction rate, the characteristic parameter method, is proposed in this paper. Mathematical models were established to determine the kinetic parameters and rate constants. In order to test the validity of this method, the saponifications of ethyl benzoate, ethyl acetate and ethyl propionate, and the formation of hexamethylenetetramine were studied with this method. The rate constants calculated with this method are in agreement with those in the literature, and the characteristic parameter method is therefore believed to be correct.In the light of the characteristic parameter method, we have developed further two thermo-kinetic methods, the thermoanalytical single and multi-curve methods, which are convenient for simultaneous determination of the reaction order and the rate constant. The reaction orders and rate constants of the saponifications of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate and the ring-opening reaction of epichlorohydrin with hydrobromic acid were determined with these methods, and their validity was verified by the experimental results.

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In this paper, 633 species (involving 10 classes, 48 families, 205 genera) collected from the alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau were studied. We tested potential factors affecting variation in mean germination time (MGT), i.e., plant traits (adult longevity, dispersal mode and seed size) or phylogeny, to evaluate if these factors were independent or they had interaction. Nested ANOVA showed that taxonomic membership accounted for the majority of MGT variation (70%), and in the generalized linear model, family membership could explain independently the largest proportion of MGT variation (29%). The strong taxonomic effect suggests that MGT variation within taxonomic membership is constrained. The other plant traits could also explain MGT variation independently (1% by adult longevity and dispersal mode, respectively, and 2% by seed size). Thus, the phylogeny was an important constraint to maintain the stability of species, and we could simplify the question if we regarded the phylogeny as an individual factor, but we could not negate the adaptive significance of the relationship between other plant traits and seed MGT. In addition, a large percentage of the variance remained unexplained by our model, thus important selective factors or parameters may have been left out of this analysis. We suggest that other possible correlates may exist between seed germination time and additional ecological factors (for example, altitude, habitat and post-dispersal predation) or phylogenetic related morphological and physiological seed attributes (e.g., endosperm mass) that were not evaluated in this study.

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Abstract  

To provide a convenient and facile method to evaluate the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 in quality control of routine clinical application, a simplified method of single-strip thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed and validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RCP data of TLC correlated well with HPLC.

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Summary  

The removal of heavy metal ion Co(II) from aqueous solution was studied usingg-Al2O3 by batch technique. The experiments were performed at T=20±2 °C, in 0.01M NaNO3 solutions and under aerobic conditions. The effect of pH, ionic strength, fulvic acid (FA) and alumina amount on the sorption of Co(II) on alumina were also investigated. The pH affected the sorption of Co(II) significantly as compared with the effect of FA and ionic strength. The results indicated that strong chemical bonds are formed between Co(II) and functional groups of the bare or FA coated alumina, and a precipitation of Co(II) takes place on the alumina surface, induced by a transition from the adsorption to surface. The addition sequences of Co/FA on Co(II) sorption were also studied: the sorption of Co(II) in the ternary system was found independent of addition sequences.

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Abstract  

Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences of FA/Co2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption.

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