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  • Author or Editor: A. Garg x
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Abstract  

Solid wastes and sewage sludges in metropolitan cities are potential health hazards due to toxic heavy metal pollutants. Sewage sludges from six Indian cities viz., Ahmedabad, Bikaner, Bombay, Calcutta, Jaipur, Kanpur and solid wastes from six different disposal sites of the capital city of Delhi have been analyzed for 26 elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Sewage sludges from Bombay after different treatments (settled, digested, aerobic, anaerobic) along with several environmental SRMs were also analyzed. An attempt has been made to attribute the pollutant sources to the degree of urbanisation and industrialization of the city. Role of treatment processes in the removal/retention of heavy metals is discussed.

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Abstract  

In order to determine hazardous effects of smoking five different brands of Indian cigarette tobacco including its ash and smoke, three brands of bidi (a typical of Indian subcontinent) and two of chewing tobacco have been analysed for 24 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Hf, La, Na, P, Rb, Sb, –Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A simple and indigeneous smoking device has been developed. A mean ash content of 16.5±1.1% was obtained for different brands of cigarettes whereas smoke content was found to be 4.8±0.8%. It is observed that most elements are retained in ash and a few are transferred to smoke. Percent amount of elements retained in ash and transferred to smoke condensate have been calculated. Significant amounts of Sb, Hg, Co, Se and Zn are transferred to smoke but >90% of Ca, Fe, Sr and Cr are retained in ash. A comparison of elemental contents with the cigarette tobacco from other countries shows comparable amounts for most elements except few minor variations attributable to local soil characteristics. Most elemental contents in bidi and chewing tobacco are comparable except Br, Cr, Na, Se and Sr which are higher in chewing tobacco but its Ca content is lower. Standard Reference Materials Bowen's Kale, Kentucky Reference Cigarette and Citrus Leaves (SRM 1572) along with a newly developed tobacco CRM OTL-1 from Poland were also analysed.

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Abstract  

Gamma-radiolysis of KNO3 in the matrix of some sulfates, viz. Na2SO4, K2SO4, KNaSO4, KNaSO4: Eu, KNaSO4: Ce, K3Na(SO4)2, K3Na(SO4)2: Eu and K3Na(SO4)2: Ce has been studied at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy.G(NO 2 ) values calculated on the basis of electron fraction in all the sulfates are enhanced significantly. It is also affected by the nature of outer cation and the dopant lanthanide. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) measurements show the formation of radical species SO 4 , SO 3 , O 3 , O 2 upon -irradiation. It is proposed that there radical species may transfer energy and interact with the radical species of nitrate (NO 3 2– , NO2, NO3 etc.) so as to enhance the decomposition. A possible mechanism has been proposed.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical solvent extraction procedure has been developed for the determination of As(III) using76As tracer. It is based on the complexation of As(III) with toluene-3,4-dithiol (TDT) at pH 2 and subsequent extraction in benzene. The effect of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, nature of solvent, quantitative character and interferences have been studied. The method has been further developed into substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for the determination of As at < 1 g level and employed for the analysis of several environmental and biological standard Reference Materials from NIST (USA), IAEA (Vienna) and NIES (Japan).

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Abstract  

Tobacco smoking/chewing has been a cause of concern because of it being related with oral cancer. It causes stimulation and ill physiological effects. Ten different brands of spit tobacco, eight gutkaas and five paan masalas have been analyzed for seven minor (Al, Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 17 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Also Ni and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of Cd was below detection limit (<10 mg kg−1) in the tobacco samples. Mg, generally added as MgCO3 to prevent caking, is present as minor constituent in spit tobacco and gutkaas but is below detection limit (<1 g kg−1) in paan masalas. Most elemental concentrations vary in a wide range depending on the nature of chewing tobacco. Spit tobacco has been found to be more enriched in essential elements (Ca, K, Na, P, Mn, and Rb), whereas gutkaas contain higher concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Paan masalas contain lower contents of other elements but higher content of Hg. Gutkaas also contain higher amounts of As and Pb. Further glutamic acid has been separated from tobacco leaves and characterized as it might bind with some elements.

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Summary  

Radioanalytical techniques have been applied in a study on (subclinical) hepatitis in Dobermann dogs. Cu levels in transcutaneous obtained full liver biopsies were quantified using INAA and 66Cu. A copper excretion study was performed in a group of completely normal Dobermann dogs and in six Dobermanns with elevated copper levels and suffering from subclinical hepatitis. 64Cu2+ was used to assess whether a normal bile flow and thus excretion was possible. All subjects underwent separately from this 64Cu2+ excretion study a 99mTc-Bis-IDA scintigraphy. The Cu levels in liver of these hepatitis patients vary from 600 to 1600 mg . kg-1 whereas 100-300 mg . kg-1 is probably normal for healthy Dobermann dogs. These Cu levels match fully with histopathology results and clinical observations. Measurements during a 2 years' evaluation period showed a clear relation between the existence of subclinical hepatitis and increased Cu levels without a sign for cholestasis or an abnormal bile flow.

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Abstract  

Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry have been used to study Sm–Fe mixed oxides (with different SmFe atomic ratios) annealed at 550, 850, 1000 and 1250 °C. The room temperature Mössbauer spectra can be interpreted in terms of one, two or three sextets and in some cases by an additional doublet depending on the composition and the heat treatment. The sextets have been associated with SmFeO3 perovskite, Sm3Fe5O12 garnet and -Fe2O3 hematite. These results are in agreement with those of X-ray diffractometric measurements, which give a clear, evidence of the presence of these phases.

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Summary  

Twenty bhasmas based on Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg, Ag, K, As, Cu, Sn and gemstones have been analyzed for main constituent elements along with minor (Na, K, Mg, Ca, P), trace (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Hg) and toxic elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) including their C, H, N and S contents. Siddhamakaradhwaja, an Hg preparation and Swet parpati of K were found to be stoichiometrically HgS and KNO3

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Summary  

Eight different brands of Trifala and its three constituents, Amalaki (Embilica officinalis), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica) and Haritaki (T.chebula) were analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl and P) and 19 trace (Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Eu, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two candidate reference materials Tea Leaves (TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) were also analyzed as a part of Intercomparison Study besides several reference materials (RMs) for quality control. The samples along with RMs were irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA/Dhruva reactors at BARC, Mumbai and their activity measured on HPGe detector and 8K MCA system. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Bibhitaki is found to be enriched in Fe (0.98 mg/g), P (1.10 mg/g), Co (1.74 mg/g) and Se (240 ng/g) including alkali and alkaline earth metals. Availability of many nutrient elements such as Mg, Ca, K, Fe, and Se in Trifala is attributed to its usefulness in the treatment of liver disorder, heart ailments, hepatic diseases and cancer, as expectorant, powerful eye rejuvenator and an antioxidant.

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