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The Hungarian plant protection organization has been performing western corn rootworm moni- toring over the past four years.In 1998 three different trapping activities were carried out at 150 monitoring sites.Hungarian pheromone traps and Multigard ®(yellow sticky)traps were used from July 1 to September 30.The number of catches and the average catches/trap in 1998 were lower than the catch numbers in 1997. In 1998,the pest spread to a lesser degree than in 1997.

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Pherocon AM (PhAM) trapping and visual counting are two commonly used methods for identifying maize fields in the USA that contain a sufficient number of adult western corn rootworms (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte to cause economic root damage by larvae the following year. Therefore, the estimation of adult WCR population plays an important role in management decisions (rotation or treatment). The goals of this study were (1) to compare adult WCR data obtained by PhAM trapping to “whole plant count” data in different maize developmental stages, (2) to determine the period in which the data obtained by both methods show the highest correlation, (3) to determine the regression curve between capture of WCR on PhAM as an independent variable and number of WCR observed by visual plant count, and (4) to determine if the “whole plant count” method can serve as a substitution for PhAM trapping under European conditions. Three samplings were conducted in 2006 in 38 fields in Croatia and one sampling was conducted in 22 fields in Serbia. Sampling in Croatia was conducted when maize plants were in the R 65-69, R 73-77 and R 79-85 developmental stages according to BBCH identification keys of maize. Sampling in Serbia was conducted when maize plants reached R 69-71 developmental stages. Three to six PhAM traps were placed in each 0.5 to 4 ha maize field seven days prior to sampling. Visual counts were conducted on the same day as trap inspections. Adult WCR densities in the PhAM traps were correlated to adult densities on whole plants. Statistical analyses comparing the results of PhAM trapping with the visual “whole plant count” method showed that there is a significant medium to strong correlation between them. Correlation coefficients varied depending on the data used in the analysis. When sampling was conducted in the first half of August (maize developmental stages R 69-77), the correlation coefficients were the highest (r(R 6971) = 0.8677 and r(R 73-77) = 0.706). Coefficients of determination were the highest as well [r2 (R 69-71) = 0.753; r2 (R 73-77) = 0.4984]. Therefore, the most appropriate period for sampling is during the first half of August. At that time, the majority of the maize plants were between the R 69 and R 77 developmental stages. According to the results, 0.5–1 visually determined adult/plant corresponds to 40 adults/trap/week. This shows that both methods are equally useful for estimating the population densities of WCR in the Central European region.

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In the present study, heat treatment was carried out in five different phenological phases, from the first node detectable (DEV31) growth stage to 20 days after flowering, on four wheat genotypes with very different adaptation strategies. They were grown in a controlled environment in a phytotron chamber and exposed to a night temperature of 20°C and a day temperature of either 30°C, at DEV31, or 35°C at all the later developmental phases, for an interval of 14 days. Plant height, leaf number, number of tillers, grain number and grain weight per main and side spikes, TKW per main and side spikes, length of the main and side spikes, and spikelet number per main and side spikes were recorded. High temperature enhanced the stem growth intensity, plant height and tiller number. In contrast, the length of side spikes, spikelet no./side spike, grain no./main and side spike, grain weight/main and side spike and TKW/main and side spike were significantly decreased. The stress response depended strongly on the developmental phase in which the heat stress was applied. Fleischmann 481 and Soissons showed definitely contrasting tendencies both in grain number and grain weight. In the case of the Plainsman V and Mv Magma pair, the higher heat stress tolerance of Magma compared to Plainsman V was evident also from the grain number and weight of the main spike at each developmental phase.

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Abstract  

It is demonstrated that combined PIXE and PIGE measurements are suitable for the accurate determination of the elemental concentration of glass samples. Borosilicate glasses used as high voltage insulators in Van de Graaff accelerators and tested for the relevant physical properties have been analyzed. A correlation between concentrations and physical properties has been found, supporting the additivity rule.

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Abstract

In recent years, post mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is increasingly applied for forensic and pathologic examination. However, classical dissection remains dominant in everyday practice. Lack of quantifiable data on the coronary system has become a disadvantageous attribute of traditional autopsy. Therefore, post mortem MSCT angiography was performed in 80 ex corpo hearts with the aim of improving the accuracy and quantitative documentation of pathologic and forensic diagnoses of coronary artery disease (CAD). Hearts were perfused by introducing a new oily or synthetic resin, or using both contrast materials successively. Then the perfused organs were processed for imaging. Detailed angiographic analysis enabled us to localize, map and quantify coronary calcifications, stenoses, and to characterize the types of atherosclerotic plaques. Significant early or late complications of widely used percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and coronary bypass surgery (CABS) could be revealed using CT analysis. Furthermore, by using our oily contrast material and CT imaging, we could identify and visualize the clinically important small caliber nodal arteries (diameter 0.4–2.0 mm). The present work suggests that post mortem CT angiography and post-processing of the data may improve the quality of pathologic and forensic diagnosis. Our collection of coronary casts including digital data are available for further analysis.

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A real-time RT-PCR assay utilising light upon extension fluorogenic primer (LUX RT-PCR) was developed for the rapid and efficient detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV). The assay detected each of the AIV isolates tested (16/16) and gave negative results with heterologous pathogens (17/17). The detection limit of the assay proved to be 10-0.5 EID50/0.2 ml and 101.5 EID50/0.2 ml in allantoic fluid of virus-infected embryonated chicken eggs and in spiked chicken faeces samples, respectively. Based on its specificity, sensitivity and relative simplicity, the LUX RT-PCR assay provides a novel, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for avian influenza surveillance and monitoring programs.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Németh
,
B. Jakab
,
R. Józsa
,
T. Hollósy
,
A. Tamás
,
A. Lubics
,
I. Lengvári
,
P. Kiss
,
Zs. Oberritter
,
B. Horváth
,
Z. Szilvássy
, and
D. Reglődi

Abstract  

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has two molecular forms with 38 and 27 amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to develop a new, highly specific PACAP-27 assay to investigate the quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 in the central nervous system of various vertebrate species applying the same technical and experimental conditions. Our results show that the antiserum used turned to be PACAP-27 specific. The average ID50 value was 51.5±3.6 fmol/ml and the detection limit was 2 fmol/ml. PACAP-27 immunoreactivity was present in the examined brain areas, with highest concentration in the rat diencephalon and telencephalon. Swine and pigeon brain also contained significant amount of PACAP-27. Our results confirm the previously described data showing that PACAP-38 is the dominant form of PACAP in vertebrates, since PACAP-38 levels exceeded those of PACAP-27 in all examined brain areas. Furthermore, our study describes for the first time, the comparative quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 and-38 in the swine and pigeon brain.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
G. Molnár
,
T. Belgya
,
L. Dabolczi
,
B. Fazekas
,
Zs. Révay
,
Á. Veres
,
I. Bikit
,
Z. Kiss
, and
J. Östör

Abstract  

Prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) is an important complementary technique to conventional instrumental activation analysis that can be successfully used in a number of cases when INAA is not applicable. Therefore, a PGAA facility has been constructed at the recently refurbished and upgraded Budapest Research Reactor. It occupies the end position of a new curved themal guide of 30 m length and 2.5×10 cm2 cross section which provides a clean beam of low energy neutrons. The sophisticated HPGe-BGO -ray spectrometer system can be operated in Compton-suppression and pair-spectrometer modes simultaneously. The octal splitting of the main BGO improves efficient pair mode operation when coincidences between pairs of opposite segments and the HPGe detector are required separately. Gamma-gamma coincidence measurements will also be possible when the new multiparameter data acquisition system is completed. One of the main tasks at the new facility will be the accumulation of new spectroscopic data for detector calibration and standardisation, as well as for the construction of a more accurate prompt -ray library for the chemical elements. Various applications are planned, such as the determination of hydrogen in fullerenes and of toxic trace elements in environmental samples.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
I. Grigorszky
,
Gy. Dévai
,
K. Kiss
,
B. Tóthmérész
,
M. Gligora
,
A. Plenkovic-Moraj
,
Koraljka Kraj
,
V. Béres
,
Cs. Schnitchen
,
G. Borics
, and
A. Nagy

Phosphatase enzymes are capable of releasing phosphate through cleavage of phosphoester bonds. The seasonal importance of this process was examined by using a model substrate paranitrophenylphosphate and the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the release rate of PO 4 -P from phosphomonoesters. The seasonal occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity was used to estimate the velocity of phosphate release from these compounds. Filter fractionation of phosphatase activity demonstrated that most activity (>60%) was in size fractions less than 0.45 μm. The release rates were highest in May and June (15 to 25 nmol L −1 min −1 ) during the Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) bloom and decreased to less than 2 nmol L −1 min −1 in two weeks and remained low throughout the summer and the fall. Fractionation of 32 P-H 3 PO 4 labelled dissolved organic phosphorus showed this fraction to vary considerably through the year. Potential phosphate release declined through the summer and into the fall. Significance of the co-occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity maxima and Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) bloom is discussed.

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A Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP)was undertaken on the western corn rootworm (WCR)in 1997 –1998 to establish a permanent moni- toring network,evaluate a containment and control program,test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a Slam ®-based areawide pest management program,develop training materials,and conduct a risk assessment of the potential for WCR spread and establishment in other areas of Europe.TCP countries were Bosnia-Her- zegovina,Croatia,Hungary,and Romania.Bulgaria and Yugoslavia cooperated as unofficial TCP members. The data from the permanent monitoring network showed that the WCR had spread over an area of about 105,600 km 2 in Central Europe and that economic populations had developed on 14,000 km 2 in Yugoslavia through 1998.The containment and control trapping program,although designed to determine the feasibility of restricting the establishment of WCR beetles in an area,did not prove to be successful due to the number of WCR beetles encountered and their rapid movement into previously uninfested areas.The areawide pest management activity showed that the semiochemical Slam was highly efficacious against WCR beetles with residual activity for up to 2 weeks,thus making it a cost-effective alternative to other controls.Also, investigations showed that WCR will continue to spread and establish in other parts of Europe.

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