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  • Author or Editor: L Szabó x
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Abstract  

Sugar esters (SEs) have a wide range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values (1–16) and hence can be applied as surfactants or as solubility or penetration enhancers. They can be used for hot melt technology and solvent method which are frequently applied techniques to preparation of solid dispersions. In this study drug-SE products were prepared by physical mixing, melt technology and solvent methods. The products were investigated by DSC, X-ray powder diffraction and dissolution tests. Diclofenac sodium (DS) as model drug and two SEs, P1670 (HLB=16) and S970 (HLB=9) were used for the preparation of the products. DSC curves revealed considerable melting range and enthalpy decreases for the DS-SE products. The dissolved drug molecules broke down the structures of the SEs but were not built into the crystalline phase of the carrier. The melt technology led to a solid dispersion while in the case of the solvent methods the DS was in molecularly dispersed form which resulted in faster dissolution. The drug release was influenced by the structures resulting from the various treatments, by the HLB and by the gel-forming behaviour of the SEs.

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Abstract  

Shoulder pain is a common presentation of the dysfunction of the glenohumeral joint. The long head of the biceps tendon has been proposed as a source of pain in rotator cuff pathologies. The rotator cuff is a dynamic stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint, and its tear can create different shoulder dysfunctions. The long head of the biceps has a special intraarticular localisation, so the arthricular destruction affects its tendon too. In the process of the rotator cuff degeneration and tear the structure of the biceps tendon pathological transforms. With foregoing studies authors have demonstrated the feasibility of DSC in the investigation of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to establish the curves and the histological properties of the tendon of the long head of the biceps in different magnitudes of the rotator cuff tear on cadavers. The DSC results clearly proved that definitive differences are present between the structural state of the tendons in different magnitudes of the rotator cuff tears, which have also been demonstrated by the histological examination.

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Abstract

Intercalation complexes of three different Hungarian kaolinites with hydrazine and potassium acetate were investigated by FT-IR (DRIFT) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry. Differences were found in the thermal behaviour of the complexes as well as in the rehydration — reexpansion patterns of the heated intercalates. An XRD method is proposed for the distinction of kaolinite and 7.2 Å halloysite present in the same mineral.

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Vitamin D2 is essential for the human body and mushrooms are proved to be one of the best sources of it. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest white and cream type button mushrooms and oyster mushroom were treated with UVB light in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. UVB lamps (operating on 312 nm) and six time periods of irradiation (15 to 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 analysis. Data showed considerable increase in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in each cultivar.

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Abstract  

A control system for monitoring the radioactive concentration in aqueous wastes of nuclear installations was elaborated. The mobile station developed for in situ control enables simultaneous measurement of gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.15–2.0 MeV and that of beta radiation in the energy range of 0.3–2.0 MeV by means of a combined scintillation detector. Disturbing effects of accompanying and secundary radiations on the determination of the counting efficiency vs. radiation energy functions used in calculation of the radioactive concentration limits as well as some experiences during a long time of operation of the system have been discussed.

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Basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) was grown in open-field experiment. The brown forest soil (sand texture, pHKCl 7.7, humus 1.6%, CEC 11.5 cmolc/kg; Cd-0.11, Cu-7.1, Pb-8.1, Zn-25.0 mg/kg in aqua regia extract) was treated with municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) (25 t/ha wet weight, 12.8 t/ha dry weight in 2009; 50 and 100 t/ha wet weight, 25.4 t/ha and 50.8 t/ha dry weight in 2008). The MSSC was moderately contaminated with toxic metals (Cd-<0.5, Cu-140, Pb-19, Zn-440 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2008, and Cd-<0.5, Cu-299, Pb-69, Zn-865 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2009). Accumulation of Zn in treated willow leaves doubled 4 months after 25 t/ha MSSC application, while in treated twig tips 30% less Zn was found than in control. Zn (max. 133 mg/kg d.w.), Cd (max. 1.15 mg/kg d.w.) and Cu (max. 7.73 mg/kg d.w.) accumulations in leaves or twig tips of basket willow were 16 months after 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC application. Twenty months after MSSC application in the harvested twigs (shoots without leaves) of 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC-treated cultures the Zn concentrations were only 9.8–14.3% higher than in controls. We suppose that there is not a direct danger of considerable Zn accumulation in the bioash after incineration of MSSC-treated willow shoots in biomass power plants.

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Studies involving morphological description with both dominant (RAPD) and codominant (SSR, isoenzyme) molecular markers were made on 28 maize inbred lines of known genetic background with a final aim of prediction of heterosis. The genetic distance and degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses as the 28 lines formed only 16 gel electrophoretic groups, indicating that certain lines had identical isoenzyme patterns. On the basis of RAPD and gene-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers, however, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. When the lines were grouped according to genetic background it was found that although the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the data, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.

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The effects of regular NPK fertilization on the amounts of winter wheat yield and the amounts and proportion of different N forms (NO 3 -N, NH 4 -N, N org , N total ) of a Luvic Phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl 2 were studied in the B1740 variant of the National Long-Term Fertilization Experiment at Karcag. According to the yield data, N and P fertilization increased winter wheat yield significantly. When applying the 200 kg N·ha -1 dose, P fertilization resulted in a more than 2 t·ha -1 yield increase, as compared to the treatments without P fertilization. K fertilization had no effect on the yield, similarly to preceding years. These findings may be adapted to fields of the Middle-Tisza Region with similar conditions to the trial site. The N forms of the soil determined in CaCl 2 reflected fertilization well. All of the fractions, but especially NO 3 -N and N total , increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Close relationships (r = 0.87–0.88) were found among the NO 3 -N and N total fractions and the N balance, which means that the amounts of NO 3 -N and N total are suitable for assessing both the N deficit and the N surplus. The strength of the correlation between the NH 4 -N content and N balance was moderate (r = 0.65). The N org fraction increased significantly as a function of N and P fertilization. These results can be explained with the yield increase. A significant correlation (r = 0.55) was found between the N org fraction and yield amounts. It can be established that organic residuals remaining on the site resulted in a significant increase in the N org content of soils. The gained results confirm that the N org fraction is suitable for the characterization of the readily mobilizable N reserves previously ignored in fertilization practice. On the basis of the presented results the CaCl 2 method is recommended for the precise estimation of nutrient requirements.

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