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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Sárosi
,
K. Manninger-Kóczán
,
P. Penksza
,
R. Juhász
,
B. Szabó-Nótin
,
L. Szakács
, and
J. Barta

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Jerusalem artichoke powder produced by a simple drying method is suitable for replacing inulin as a dietary fibre in bread. Baking probe was performed using 0, 5, and 10% Jerusalem artichoke (JA) powder and 2.5 and 5% inulin (IN) on wheat flour weight basis. Functional properties of bread loafs were tested by Stable Micro System TA TX2i Texture Analyser (SMS) after 0, 24, 48, and 72 h storage. It was concluded that using inulin as a dietary fibre did not deteriorate the baking quality of bread, however, shelflife slightly decreased. Jerusalem artichoke powder compared to inulin had similar effect on the baking properties of bread. Based on our results, JA powder proved to be a promising alternative for fibre enhancement in bread.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Kisbenedek
,
Sz. Szabo
,
E. Polyak
,
Z. Breitenbach
,
A. Bona
,
L. Mark
, and
M. Figler

Oilseeds are very popular edibles that are often used to enhance the fibre content of baked goods, and specific types are used for preserving and seasoning. Polyphenol-related researches have been receiving growing attention in the last 20 years, especially the ones concentrating on stilbenoids. In previous studies, resveratrol concentrations have been determined from oilseeds such as peanut.The aim of our research was to define the composition of oilseeds with a focus on the bioactive compounds, more specifically the resveratrol.Research took place in 2010–2011 at the University of Pécs, Medical School, using non-random, convenience sampling. Oilseeds studied in the research were: sunflower seed, roasted peanut, un-roasted peanut, sesame seed, pumpkin seed, almond, linseed, bio white mustard seed, bio black mustard seed, mustard seed of foreign provenance, and wild black mustard seed. All of these oilseeds can be purchased from trade. Samples used in the research were obtained from the producers and collectors. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for the measurements.Summarising our results, it can be stated that each type of oilseed analysed in our research can be regarded as good sources of resveratrol. The highest level of resveratrol was detected in the sunflower seeds (0.00398±0.0001 mg g−1), almonds (0.00176±0.00021 mg g−1), roasted peanut (0.00206±0.00013 mg g−1), and wild black mustard seeds (0.0023±0.0007 mg g−1).

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There are extensive data on effects of antifungal agents on the plant pathogens, especially on Fusariums spp. species. However, investigations on the interaction of chemicals and the treated cultivars are rare. The aim of the study was to test two types of fungicide mixtures, azoxystrobin-propiconazole, and prothioconazole-tebuconazole, which are applied in wheat cultivars intensively, on six fodder maize hybrids that were infected with Fusarium proliferatum in the R1 growth stage in a field trial. The effect of the fungicide treatment was tested on the starch content and antifungal, antioxidant polyphenols of the kernels in the R3–R4 and R6 stage of the cultivars. The level of the fungal presence and the fumonisin concentration of the kernels were increased significantly under the artificial infection. The fumonisin concentration was variable at the R6 stage of the hybrid maize kernels. The treatment with prothioconazole and tebuconazole was found to be suitable when it was done before flowering, while the azoxystrobin-propiconazole treatments were equally successful before and after maize flowering considering the decreasing fumonisin concentration of the kernels. Both fungicide mixtures, when they were applied after maize flowering, affected the starch biosynthesis to the R3–R4 stage significantly. Meanwhile, azoxystrobin-propiconazole also significantly affected the antioxidant flavone/flavanol contents from the R3–R4 stage to the R6 stage.

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The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.

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In the case of a widely used spice — Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum — the effect of different drying methods (natural, and by using dryers at temperatures of 30°C, 40 °C, 45°C) was investigated referring to the essential oil amount and composition in the final material. The sensory characteristics of olive oils flavoured by the oregano samples were also determined. The essential oil amount and the area percentage of its main component — carvacrol — were significantly influenced by the different drying temperatures. Compared to the natural way of drying in the case of the essential oil content the drying temperature of 40°C and 45°C was preferable for the higher amounts. Referring to the carvacrol area percentage the drying temperature of 30°C resulted in the highest amounts (89.74±0.28%), that was affirmed by the sensory analysis as well; based on the taste descriptions the consumers found it the most pungent one. According to our results sensory analysis data in most of the cases corresponds to the GC-MS measurements and give a much more complex characterisation of a spice.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Bóna
,
N. Adányi
,
R. Farkas
,
E. Szanics
,
E. Szabó
,
Gy. Hajós
,
A. Pécsváradi
, and
E. Ács

Selenium (Se), a main antioxidant component in cereal grain, is essential for animals and human health reducing risk factors of many dangerous diseases. Over the past decades, intake of this trace element had dropped due to low Se content in large areas of European countries including Hungary. Se-rich, high-protein cereal products became a focus for both animal feed and human consumption. In the study, we examined the following: i) grain Se concentration of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale ( Triticosecale Wittm.) intake to detect intra-and inter-genetic variations and ii) possible comparison relationship of this trace element to end product integrity, quality and relevant technological aspects. Se content of the whole meal grain was tested via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Despite generally poor Se soil content of the experimental area where samples were collected, significant differences were found for both species. In general, triticale contained higher Se concentration than wheat did. Spring type cereals had significantly higher grain Se and protein concentration than those of winter ones. Grain Se content showed positive correlation with magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, tocopherol and crude protein concentration. Remarkable intra-specific variations were found in Se concentration, however in future, additional studies, methods and resources will be required for identifying ways of increasing Se content in cereal foodstuff and feed.

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Lard is a preferred frying fat in the Hungarian culinary routine. Our study aimed at measuring conventional fat quality indices and performing NIR-based calibrations of those indices, during prolonged heating. Lard was heated for 4 days at 8 different temperatures (160, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 200 and 230 °C) for 8 h a day (n=32+1, i.e. the original sample). Acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CON) increased in parallel with the duration of heating and heating intensity. Peroxide value (PV) increased in the first 8 h, and decreased back during further treatment. p -Anisidine value (pAV) increased at each heating temperature below 200 °C, while temperatures above 200 °C decreased it. NIR analysis (NIRSystems 6500) was performed on original samples in transflectance mode (400–2500 nm wavelength range, 0.1 mm layer thickness, aluminium-plated reflector). Treatment characteristics (temperature, heat-sum, sampling event) could be estimated effectively. Calibration for AV was robust: R 2 =0.927; 1-VR=0.786. Weak relationship was found for PV (R 2 =0.48) and CON (R 2 =0.109). For pAV, good calibration was gained, expressly below 200 °C, in the 2000–2500 nm wavelength interval (R 2 =0.912; 1-VR=0.772). Based on calibration and cross-validation results, NIR technique may be a rapid, solvent-free alternative for the estimation of acid value and p -anisidine value of lard below 200 °C.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Bujdosó
,
F. Budán
,
T. Varjas
,
L. Szabó
,
A. Csejtei
,
J. Iványi
,
A. Huszár
,
I. Arany
,
I. Kiss
, and
I. Ember

Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) could contribute to tissue regeneration through the ability to form somatic cells. CD34 positivity is regarded as stem cell (SC) or endothelial progenitor cell (EP) marker. According to literature natural substances could increase the release of CD34 positive (CD34+) cells. In this study we investigated the basic rate of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of CBA/Ca (H-2k haplotype) and BALB/c inbred mice by flow cytometry. Then we treated the mice with a new mixture of medical herbs, and we measured the level of CD34+ cells at 1, 3, 6, 18 and 24 hours after the treatment. A biological rhythm in the untreated blood was detected. Moreover the used herbal compounds increased the number of CD34+ cells.Although SC number is individually and highly variable in peripheral blood, the fluctuation could be used as a biomarker like the other compounds of peripheral blood in different aspects in risk assessment.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Czelleng
,
Z. Bozsó
,
P. Ott
,
E. Besenyei
,
G. Varga
,
A. Szatmári
,
E. Szabó
,
L. Zsiros
, and
Z. Klement

Compared to the known method of conjugation the frequency of transposon mutagenesis following conjugation was enhanced 11-fold by two hours of pre-incubation of recipient Pseudomonas viridiflava 1 on conjugation media. The increased frequency was ƒ = 1.3 × 10 −4 . In other species of Pseudomonas, Pectobacteira and Xanthomonas high rates of transposon mutants were similarly obtained; however, in these strains the increased frequency was less than 5-fold.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Á. Ribárszki
,
D. Székely
,
B. Szabó-Nótin
,
B. Góczán
,
L. Friedrich
,
Q.D. Nguyen
, and
M. Máté

Abstract

Quality and storability are crucial factors in production of apple juice. The main goal of this study was investigation of the effects of ascorbic acid and acerola juice on the changes of some sensorial parameters and bioactive compounds of aseptically filled and industrial scale produced apple juice during storage for 12 months. While the viscosity and pH of apple juice did not change significantly, the ΔE* peaked (20–30) at month 6 of the storage period. The colour of apple juice was lighter than at the beginning of storage. Maximum total phenolic contents were 1,100, 1,400, and 1,250 mg L−1 in the control, ascorbic acid supplemented, and acerola added samples, respectively. Other parameters (antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, browning index, etc.) peaked in month 4. Acerola was a good alternative anti-browning and antioxidant agent for the treatment of apple juice in the processing. The antioxidant capacity of apple juice treated with acerola was higher than with ascorbic acid. The results were obtained with industrial samples, thus, they can serve as a very good base for the optimisation process and industrial production without the need for scale-up.

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