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Abstract  

A simple and efficient method has been developed to preconcentrate natural protactinium from large quantity of monazite (5–10 g) and thorium concentrates (5–100 g), obtained from thorium plant stream on Dowex 1X8 in acid medium. Gamma-spectrometry, a powerful determination technique, has been used for quantitative determination of protactinium and uranium. Various parameters like sample preparation, optimization of the resin and sample size for 231Pa recovery, 231Pa/235U ratio have been studied in detail and are discussed.

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Abstract  

Partitioning of minor alpha-emitting actinides, especially U, Pu and Am from medium active alkaline waste is possible from intermediate level liquid wastes (ILLW) produced during spent fuel reprocessing following Purex process. This paper deals with the efficient removal of alpha-activity from ILLW by solvent extraction process. Counter current batch extraction with O/A ratio 2:1 as well as multistage mixer settler has demonstrated that most of the alpha-activity was removed from the alkaline effluents using 20% Versatic-10 (V-10) in dodecane after giving 3 to 4 contacts, thus converting alkaline waste as non-alpha waste. Under the optimum conditions (pH 9.0-9.5 and VA-10), both Pu(IV) and Am(III) are highly extractable whereas U(VI) is relatively poorly extracted. To assess the applicability of this process for regular treatment of the waste, a feasibility study on pilot plant scale using six stage mixer settler was operated to treat the ILLW. The results indicated that almost >99.90% alpha-emitting actinides are removed. Dilute nitric acid (0.5M HNO3) served as the most efficient strippant for all these actinides. This facilitate an easy regeneration of the extractant which can be recycled. This method is useful in obtaining alpha-free wastes and had positive impact on ease and safety aspects during subsequent waste treatment and long term storage.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: R. Kumar, N. Sivaraman, A. Thiruvenkadasamy, C.R. Venkata Subramani, and P.R. Vasudeva Rao

Abstract  

Carrier-free 22Na was separated from bulk quantities of magnesium by both ion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques. An extraction chromatographic procedure based on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) coated on to an inert support (Amberlite XAD-7) was developed for the first time for separation of sodium from magnesium. The sorption behavior for sodium and magnesium was studied as a function of percentage of HDEHP loaded on to the inert support as well as pH of aqueous phase. These data were used to arrive at the optimum conditions of separation. In addition, carrier free 22Na was also separated from magnesium using ion exchange chromatographic technique.

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Nitrogen use efficiency, more specifically physiological nitrogen use efficiency depends primarily on management of N, one of the major essential nutrients. It is required in increased agricultural production and may possibly cause soil toxicity if fed in excess. Rate of N fertilizer application in fertile agricultural field and improved productivity in sterile soils require the improvement of NUE. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effect of different N levels (N0, N50, N100 and N200) on rice genotypes. Vegetative plant growth was found to be reduced under N0 while improved at N200 level. Among the genotypes, highest PNUE (34.94) and correspondingly higher yield (7.15 ton ha−1) was observed for Krishna Hamsa. The other traits viz. plant height, no. of productive tillers and LAI exhibited higher values for Krishna Hamsa as well. Hence these can be utilized as physiological markers for the selection of rice genotypes efficient in N use.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Pritty Rao, G. Reddy, S. Vikram Kumar, J. Ramana, N. Chattopadhyay, A. Basu, Seema Srivastava, R. Sarin, V. Raju, and Sanjiv Kumar

Abstract  

The paper describes the simultaneous determination of 14N and 15N isotopes in opium by proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) technique. The isotopic ratio of 14N and 15N is a useful parameter for assigning provenance of (seized) illicit drugs. The measurement, non-destructive in nature, is performed on pellets made up of opium powders and is based on the prompt detection of 2.313 and 4.4 MeV γ-rays emanating from 14N(p,p′γ)14N and 15N(p,αγ)12C nuclear reactions respectively, induced simultaneously by 3.6–3.8 MeV proton beam. Positive as well as negative deviations from the natural isotopic abundance (99.63:0.37) were observed in the samples. The precision of the measurements is about 4%. The methodology provides an easy and rapid approach to determine the isotopic ratio of 14N and 15N and has been used for the first time in the analysis of opium.

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Abstract

Background

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) carries a poor prognosis in both adult and pediatric patients. It is a life-threatening condition in newborns. Current recommendations advocate the use of targeted monotherapy as a first-line approach for the treatment of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN). In case of an inadequate clinical response to treatment, an addition of a second or third agent is considered. PAH is usually managed with a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor or an endothelin receptor blocker. There are limited pediatric studies that address questions like which class of therapy should be initiated first or if a combination should be initiated together. With this background, the present study was initiated to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bosentan as an adjuvant to sildenafil and sildenafil alone in PPHN.

Results

A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study. Out of them, 26 were males (65%) and 14 were females (35%). PPHN was most commonly seen in the 29 (72.5%) of participants with a history of first order birth. Mean duration of symptoms was 14.05 ± 2.06 days. The participants were randomized to two groups. Group A consisted of total 25 participants that received both bosentan and sildenafil and group B had 15 participants that received sildenafil alone. Both groups were comparable in terms of birth weight and present weight, consanguinity, and mode of delivery. Efficacy was determined by the reduction in mean baseline Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure (PASP). PASP in group A was 75.56 ± 10.62 mm Hg and in group B was 64.86 ± 12.25 mm Hg which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). PASP on the third and seventh day in group A were 43.72 ± 8.63 and 24.47 ± 3.52 mm Hg compared to 42.28 ± 9.43 and 27.276 ± 8.38 respectively in group B which was statistically significant (P < 0.05).There were two deaths each in both groups. Two participants in Group A developed liver function abnormalities. None of the participants in Group B had adverse effects.

Conclusion

Most common clinical manifestations were nonspecific. Cardiovocal syndrome was common in PPHN. We conclude that oral sildenafil treatment is a safe, simple and effective treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborn. Combination of bosentan with sildenafil is more effective and safe in reducing pulmonary artery (PA) pressures in high-risk patients with PPHN.

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: N. ArikaraVelan, V. Deepak, N. Dhinesh Kumar, G. Muthulingam, S. Vanitha, P. Karthigai Priya, and Sachin Sabariraj

Abstract

In this study, vermicompost is replaced for fine aggregate in geopolymer concrete (GPC). Initially mix design is made for GPC and mix proportion is proposed. The vermicompost is replaced at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with M sand in GPC. Result indicates the 5% replacement with vermicompost based geopolymer concrete (GPVC) has the compressive strength of 32 N mm−2 (M30 grade) whereas the compressive strength of control specimen made with GPC is 37 N mm−2. Other replacement shows 21 N mm−2, 14 N mm−2 and 11 N mm−2 respectively. The 5% replaced concrete cubes and control specimen are tested at an elevated temperature of 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C and compared with the control specimen. There is no significant difference observed in weight lost at control (GPC) and GPVC specimen. An elevated temperature, the weight loss is almost 4% at 200°C because of expulsion of water from the concrete. Afterwards only 2% weight loss is observed in remaining elevated temperature. The compressive strength loss is observed at an elevated temperature in GPC and GPVC specimen because of thermal incompatibility between aggregate and the binder. EDX results show M sand and compost contains Si, Al, C, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K and it is similar in the elemental composition and SEM image confirms vermicompost contains fine particles.

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